AFGHANISTAN RAM BUAINA KHI ENG VANG NGE? TU NGE DEM TUR NI ANG? ENG NGE ZIR TUR KAN NEIH?

- Samuel Malsawmzuala


America leh NATO ram sipaite chuan Afghanistan an chhuahsan dawn thu an tihchian hnu aṭanga rei lo te-ah Taliban te chuan August 15, 2021 khan Afghanistan khawpui Kalbul chu an la a, Afghanistan President Ashraf Ghani chu UAE lamah a bibo zui a, Afghan National Army te pawhin Taliban te tana harsatna lian tham awm lovin an ram chu Taliban kutah an hlan fel a ni tih kan hre vek a. Mahse, he buaina hi eng vanga lo in ṭan nge tih hre tur chuan Afghanistan politics, social boruak leh an foreign affairs history thui tak chhui a ngai a. Vietnam War te, America, Iran leh Israel te inlaichinna te, 9/11 beihna chungchangah pawh chhui tur tam tak a awm a, mahse kim taka chhui dawn turin hun leh hmunin min daih lo turah ngai ila, a pawimawh zual tal hrut kan tum dawn a ni.

Hneh theih loh Afghanistan:
Afghanistan ram khi ‘Lal ram te thlanmual’ (Graveyard of Empire) tih hming vuah a ni a, a chhan ber pawh Afghanistan ram khi ram ropui leh thil ti thei ber ber ten an lo run fo tawh ṭhin a, mahse hnehchhuh mai theih an ni ngai lo. Lal ram ropui tak tak - Persian Empire, Macedonian Empire (4th century BC), Mongolian Empire (13th century AD) te leh ni tla seng lo British Empire leh Russian Empire (19th & 20th century AD) te pawh an hmaa an lo tlawm ve fo tawh vang a ni. Ram rethei ve tak mai, tlang chhengchhe kara inkulh, thlaler ram ro tamna hmun, khaw kheng in a khat tawka a tlawh reng, leilung hausakna chen tur leh chhawr tur pawh nei bik chuang lo ram khi a ram neitute kut atan hnehchhuh leh awpbeh mai theih a ni ngai lo. Tunah erawh kan hriat angin an ram chu chhung lam hmelma hnenah an chhan zo ta lo mai ni lovin, a hlanin an hlan ta ringawt a ni ber si a.



 
Alexander III, ‘Alexander the Great’ ti a kan hriat ngei pawh khan Afghanistan ram hi kum zabi 4-na chho vel khan a lo run tawh a. Alexander-a khan Afghanistan ram rethei ve te mai kha a ngaipawimawh hran lova, a rohlu dahkhawlna atana a thul a ni hek lo, mahse a lalram zauhna leh India rama inkulh a duh avang leh chumi atana a kawngah Afghanistan a awm avangin Afghanistan chu a run ve mai a ni. Mahse, Afghanistan chhunga hruaitu chi hrang hrang leh hnam hrangte lakah pawh ral rel thiam hmingthang Alexander The Great-a sipai rualte meuh pawh khan Afghanistan mipuite chu hnehna hla do a chham khum thei ngai lo a nih kha. 

Afghanistan, Soviet Union leh British – Afghanistan Independent-a puan a ni:
Kum zabi 19-na a lo inherchhuak a, Indopui I-na a tawp a, Kumpinu Sawrkar chuan India hausakna chenin nuam a tawl a, hmakhawsang ata ram leilung hausa ti a thang India hausakna chu Kumpinu hmelma Soviet Union pawhin a hmuh khum bik lo. Hetih hun lai hian British Empire kutah chuan Europe, Asia leh Africa khawmual tam zawk a awm a, mahse India erawh a sekibuhchhuak a ni tlat. Tichuan, British tana a chawhnar ber India chu a ṭhenawm ram, Afghanistan leh China lam aṭangin USSR chuan a rawn hnehchhuh mai hlauhna a nei ta a. Tichuan, Bristish leh Soviet Union te chuan Afghanistan chu derna anka an infahsiak a, an ram chu hnehchhuh a, an thuhnuaia dah emaw, ṭan bik nei thei lo (neutral state) a siam chu an tum ber a ni. He’ng ram pahnihte hian politics leh economy lamah Afghanistan mit hmuha ṭhian ṭha an innihsiak a, mahse an duh ber erawh Afghanistan chu an thuhnuaia dah a, Afghanistan ram aṭanga India chunga thuneihna neih a ni leh a ni. 1839 a lo ni a, Afghanistan lal chu Dost Mohammad Khan a ni a, British lamṭanga ngaih theih ni mah se, British hian a rorel dan chu an kalphung leh an lal ram tana hlauhawm theia an ngaih avangin a aiawhtu atan Shah Soojah chu dah an duh ta a. Tichuan, Afghanistan-ah chuan Afghan sipaite tuk zal turin British chuan sipai a tir lut a. Chutih mek laiin Soviet Union lam chuan Afghanistan chhunga British do tur apiangte chu a ṭanpui tur thu a lo sawi ve bawk nen. Chu boruak chuan Afghanistan chhungah indona pathum, the Three Anglo-Afghan War a hringchhuak a, 1839-a intanin 1919 –ah a tawp a; he hun chhung hi The Great Game tih a ni ta a ni.

The Great Game chhunga indona pathum zinga a tawp ber ‘The Third Anglo-Afghan War’ a thlen meuh chuan British chuan indopui pakhatna zawh hlim a ni bawk nen, Afghanistan lam chu a hawi peih tawh meuh lova, USSR pawh Japanese bei reng renga a buai avangin Afghanistan ram hnuchhawn zawngin ke a pen ve ta bawk a.  A tawi zawngin, khatih hun laia Afghanistan lal King Amanullah chuan Anglo-Afghan War tawp berah British lakah hnehna changin British nen inremna a siam a, Afghanistan chuan full independence 1919-ah an sualchhuak ta a ni.


Image: The Third Anglo-Afghan War, 1919.


Afghanistan, Soviet Union leh America – Afghanistan ram chhung buaina inṭanna:
Kum zabi 20-na a lo inherchhuak a, 1939-ah Indopui pahnihna a inṭan a, 1945-ah a tawp a, chu chuan kum 40 chuang awh tur Cold War a hring chhuak a nih kha. He Cold War-ah hian khawvel ram zawng zawngte chu side hniha ṭhen phawkin an awm a. Russia lama ṭang lo ram chu America lam ṭang an ni tawp anga ngaih theih a ni. Cold War hun lai hian America ram chu ‘Capitalism leh Democracy’ ideology pu a ni a, chutih laiin an hmelma Soviet Union (USSR) erawh ‘Communism leh Dictatorship’ behchhan an ni ve thung. Khawvel kalphung sawih danglam thei ram awmchhun chu America leh Soviet Union chiah an ni ta a ni. Tichuan, Cold War chu ideology, politics, technology, social leh economic lama America leh Soviet Union intlansiakna leh indona a ni ta ber a nih chu.

Image: The Cold War (1947-1991)

Cold War hun lai hian Afghanistan hmar lama ram te hi Soviet Union awpna emaw, an huhang hnuaia awm te an ni a, Afghanistan chhim lam erawh American ideology lam awn an ni ve thung. Ngaihdan leh kalphung in el em em, in mil lo em em pahnihten Afghanistan chu Cold War hun lai hian a karcheh a nih ber chu. Hei hian Afghanistan ramchhungah ngei pawh, ‘ngaihdan a tam, pawm dan a tam, keimah chuan kal ngaihna ka hre lo’ tih ang deuh khan hnam leh hnam, chi leh chi, hmar leh chhim inkarah kalphung leh rin dan leh pawm dan a in pawlh nuai a ni ber mai. Chutih rualin Afghanistan Economy leh Military erawh za a za deuh thawin Soviet Union ṭanpuinaa ding a ni thung. Military Training tam zawk pawh Soviet Union ram chhungah neiin, an ideology ‘Communism’  pawmpuitu pawh an pung tial tial a. Tichuan, Soviet Union hnuaia training nei, Afghan Army te hmalakna hnuaiah People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) chu 1965-ah a hringchhuak ta a ni.

People’s Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (PDPA)

Afghanistan politics buaina a inṭan: Hetih hun lai hian Afghanistan chu lal inrelbawlna (monarchy) hnuaia awm a ni a, an lal hnuhnung ber ni ta, Mohammed Zahir Shah rorelna hnuaiah Afghanistan chuan changkanna (modernization) nasa tak a hmu a, chu erawh hnam hrang hrangten an pawmpui lo hle, a chhan ber chu Soviet Union puihna leh an huhang hnuaia ram a hruai vang a ni, hei hi an buaina inṭanna ber pawh a ni. Tichuan 1973-ah Zahir Shah-a cousin Mohammed Daoud Khan-a chuan Afghan Army (Soviet Union puihnain) te leh Pashtun tribe (Afghanistan chhim, Pakistan border-a Afghan tribe khat, Afghanistan tribe lian ber) te thlawpna in an lal Zahir Shah rorelna chu an paihthla a, tichuan lal inawpna (monarchy) chu paihthlakin a awm ta a ni. Tichuan 1973-ah Afghanistan chu lal inawpna ni tawh lo turin Afghanistan chu ‘Republic of Afghanistan’ tiin Daoud Khan-a hian a puang ta a, President hmasa ber ni turin Mohammed Daoud Khan chuan amah leh amah a inruat nghal bawk a. Daoud Khan-a hian a sawrkar siam hmanga khawthlang (Western) huhang laka Afghanistan thenfai leh Afghanistan-in Soviet Union economy leh military lama mamawhnate tih tlem a ni.
Mohammed Zahir Shah

PDPA chhungah inremlohna a tam – tualthahna a nasa: Hetih mek lai hian PDPA chhungah ngei pawh hian kalphung duh dan in ang lo tak Parchamis leh Khalq-te an awm a. Parchamis-te hi khawpui lam, nationalist emaw, traditionalist thlir dan kal vung pui ve lotute an ni a (Communism lam awn). Khalq te erawh Pashtun tribe tamna, nationalist leh Islam sakhaw kalphung la na em em te an ni thung. Sawi tawh angin Daoud Khan hi Afghan Army eng emaw zat leh Pashtun tribe ten an thlawp a Afghanistan ram chu Islam ram kalphunga din leh ram dang huhang thenfai chu a tum ber a ni a. 

Mohammed Daoud Khan

Daoud Khan President a nih chhung hian PDPA chhunga Parchamis hruaitu pakhat Mir Akbar Khyber chu thah a ni a, a mawhphurtuah Daoud Khan (Khalq lam) chu puh a ni a. Hei vang hian PDPA chhunga Daoud Khan-a lam tang lo te (Parchamis) zingah chuan Daoud Khan-a hian thah vek a tum anga ngaihna a tam hle, chu’ng zinga mi langsar pakhat chu Hafizullah Amin a ni. Ani hian a rukin PDPA chhung mi Khalq ten an sawrkar an paihthlak theihna turin hma a la ta a. 

Nur Muhammad Taraki

Tichuan 1978-ah PDPA chhunga mi vek te chuan Hafizullah Amin ruahmanna hnuaiah an President Daoud Khan leh a chhungte chu Military Officer ṭhenkhatte puihnain Presidential Palace-ah an that a, President thar atan Soviet ideology lam awn zawk sawrkar siam turin Nur Muhammad Taraki chu dah a ni a, Prime Minister post nen chelh kawpin ani hi Parchamis lam zawk a ni. A Deputy Prime Minister atan Hafizullah Amin ruat a ni bawk, ani erawh Khalq mi leh sa a ni thung. Tichuan, Taraki chuan Communist sawkar chu Afghanistan-ah a din a, 1978 kum vek hian Taraki sawrkar chuan Soviet Union nen inremna, ‘The Soviet-Afghan Friendship Treaty’ chu an ziak nghe nghe a ni. Hei hi Cold War hunlai a ni a, Afghanistan-in America hmelma lian ber Soviet Union nen inṭhianṭhatna an ziak chu America chuan tin seh nuap nuap chungin a lo thlir ve reng a. Afghanistan hian Iran, China leh Pakistan te nen border an inṭawm avangin Communism chu a hluar chho ang tih America chuan a hlau hle a ni. A chhan ber pawh hetih hun lai hi chuan ram tam zawk te hi kalphung nghet nei lo an la ni a, ram pakhatin ideology pakhat a pawm chuan ram danga a kan kai hluai an hlauh vang a ni ber mai. 
 
Hafzibullah Amin

Hetih mek lai hian, Taraki awpna hnuaiah Socialist Reform (Communism huhang) tam tak Afghanistan ram chhungah siam a ni a, mahse tribal tam tak, a bikin PDPA chhunga Khalq ten an do hle thung. Tichuan 1979-ah tual chhunga sawrkar hmalakna duh lo pawl ‘Anti-Regime Resistance’ ten tual chhung indona an chawkchhuak ta hial a ni. Chutiang bawkin sawrkar leh mipui mai ni lo, PDPA chhunga Parchamis leh Khalq te inkarah ngei ngei pawh kal duh dan, ram hruai duh dan, rindan leh ngaihdan inhmuhrem tawk loh vangin a khat tawkin buaina, thisen luanna hial a awm reng bawk. Afghanistan chu chhung lamah, pawn lam ram huhang vangin a buai chho ṭan zel a, he’ng buainate avang hian PDPA sawrkar President, Taraki chu 1979-ah PDPA chhunga mi vek, a ro rel dan duh lo tu Khalq lam chuan Soviet Union ideology lam a awn avangin an that a, tichuan President-ah Deputy Prime Minister ni lai, Hafzibullah Amin chu ruat a ni ta bawk a ni. He’ng tualchhung buaina zawng zawng hi Isamic Revolution vang leh ram dang, Western leh Soviet Union huhang vang a ni ti ila a huam zau ber awm e.


Soviet Union-in Afghanistan an run: Tichuan 1979 a lo inherchhuak a, Soviet Union chuan Afghanistan sawrkar kalphung thlawptu leh a hmaa inremna an siampui ber Nur Muhammad Taraki thah a nih takah chuan Islam sakhua chuan Afghanistan a hneh mai an hlauh bakah, an hmelma America lamin Afghanistan tualchhung leh politics buaina chu remchanga lain tha a rawn thawh an hlauh avang leh Communism ram zauhna atan Urlawk Ni 1979-ah Soviet Union chuan Afghanistan chu a run ta a; an peace treaty lo ziah tawh chu an palzut avangin. 

An art on The Soviet-Afghan War.

Ni rei lo te chhungin Kabul an la a, tichuan President Amin chu an that a, President atan PDPA chhunga Soviet lam awn zawk Babrak Karmal chu President-ah ruat a ni nghal bawk. Tichuan, Afghanistan sawrkar thar chu Soviet lam thlawp tur atana din, Soviet Communism pawmtu sawrkar a ni leh ta a nih chu. Hei hi ka rawn chhui vak chhan chu 2021 Taliban buaina lo irhchhuahna chu Afghanistan ram chhunga 1970-80 chho vela an thuneitute inrelbawlna fel tawk lo (political instability) leh tualthahna (assassination) vang a ni pakhat a ni tih kan hriat a pawimawha ka hriat vang a ni. 

Babrak Karmal
 
Taliban te lo chhuahna, Mujahideen a piang: 
Tichuan, Soviet Union thlawptu sawkar lamṭang eng emaw zat an awm rualin, hnam tam tak a bikin Pashtun Tribe te leh khawpui mi tam takin Soviet Union ṭhian ṭha Babrak Karmal sawrkar chu an duh lo hle a, paihthla tur leh Soviet Union sipaite do turin Hnam Pasaltha Mujahideen chu a lo piang ta a ni. He’ng Mujahideen te hi Islam sakhaw kalphung chawivungtu, Christian leh Atheist Soviet ho chu an tan chuan Afghanistan leh Islam sakhuanna pawlhdaltu ni a ngai te an ni a (a tam zawk hi Pashtun tribe kan tih te kha an ni nghe nghe). An tum laimu chu Afghanistan chu Islam sakhuanna leh kalphung thuhnuaia dah a, an ram pawldaltu pawn lam mi te chu hnawh bo a ni ber mai. Tichuan, Soviet chu an do ta a, an indona chu ‘Jihad’ an ti a, chu chu an tan chuan ‘Indona Thianghlim’ tihna mai a ni.

Mujahideen, 1987
 
Mujahideen te hian an ram chhunga Soviet Union din sawrkar leh Soviet Union sipaite chu an do ta char char a, khawpui chhungah chuan an indo pui ngai mang lova, mahse ramhnuai leh thingtlang khaw lamah ṭanhmun an khawh ṭhin. Guerilla Warfare lamah Soviet lam hian an ngam hleithei bik der lo. Mujahideen-te chuan Soviet Union sipai an lambunte hmanrua leh silaite an chhuhsak a, an pawl tichakna atan leh Soviet Union leh an ram sawrkar (Communist Government) do letna atan an hmang ve leh ṭhin a ni. Islam sakhaw tan chuan sakhua leh hnam pasalṭha, an sakhua leh ram tana nun hlantute an ni.


America leh Pakistan an inrawlh: Hetih hun lai zawng zawng hian Mujahideen-te hmelma Soviet Union chu Cold War hun lai a nih avangin America hmelma kumhlun a lo ni ve bawk a, hei vang hian America chuan remchang a zawng ve char char a. Hetih hun lai vek hi Indo-Pakistan war, 1971 zawh hlim a lo ni ve bawk a, Pakistan chuan India laka a tlawmna avangin India ram chu a tibuai chak zek zek a. Tichuan hetih hun laia Pakistan President Zia-ul-Haq chuan America President Jimmy Carter-a hnehah chuan America chu Vietnam War-a Soviet Union laka an tlawmna laka phuba an lak theihna turin America chu Pakistan chuan a puih tur thu leh, Soviet Union beihnaa Mujahideen pui turin Pakistan chu America tirhkah atan a inhawn thu a hrilh a. Mahse, Pakistan thil tum erawh America aṭanga sum leh ralthuam lo lut, Mujahideen te ṭanpuina tur ṭhenkhat chu Pakistan tana hman tangkaia, India ramchhunga buaina tihpunlun chu a tum ber a ni. Tichuan Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) chuan Mujahideen te sum leh ralthuama a puihna, Pakistan kaltlanga a kalpuina turin ‘Operation Cyclone’ chu a ṭan ta a ni. America chuan Mujahideen te chu Soviet Union te indona-ah chuan a rukin Pakistan kal tlangin sum leh ralthuam hmangin a pui ta char char a, Pakistan pawhin chu’ng sum leh ralthuam ṭhenkhatte chu Kashmir leh Khalistan (K2) Movement (India rama buaina) thlawpna atan te a hmang ve leh bawk a ni. Kan hriat atana pawimawh leh em em chu America hi Soviet-Afghan War-ah hian langsar taka inrawlh a duh loh avangin he’ng ṭanpuina zawng zawng hi Pakistan Intelligence Agency, ISI aṭang veka pek a ni a, chutiang bawkin Pakistan hian India hi langsar takin a do ngai lo bawk.

He Afghan Soviet War-a America-in Mujahideen a puihna hi Pakistan chuan remchangah lain America aṭanga sum leh ralthuam tam zawk Pakistan rama luh theihna turin Mujahideen pawl peng tam tak Pakistan leh Afghanistan ram chhungah an din belh bawk a. Pakistan hian Mujahideen pawl peng tam tak te chu Peshawar, Pakistan-ah meeting vawi tam tak a lo neih pui ṭhin a. Pakistan chuan Mujahideen chu training a pe mai ni lovin, Soviet union an do theih nan America sum leh ralthuam a pe char char a, chumi piah lamah Mujahideen pawl peng tam tak a din belh nghe nghe a ni. Taliban te leh Al-Qaeda te hi Mujahideen peng khat an ni a, Pakistan din anga ngai tam tak an awm bawk.

Soviet Union a inhnukdawk: Sawi tawh angin 1979-ah Soviet Union chuan Afghanistan a run a, chu chuan Mujahideen pawl a hringchhuak a, indona chhuakin chu chu Soviet-Afghan War kan tih chu a ni ta a ni. 1989-ah Soviet Union chu a ṭang zo ta lova, Afghanistan aṭang chuan a inhnuklet ta a. Tihchuan Mijahideen chuan an hmelma pakhat, Soviet Union chu an hneh ta phawt a, an beih tur la awmchhun chu an ram sawrkar, Afghan Communist Government, Soviet Union ṭhian ṭha chauh chu a ni ta a ni. A awmzia chu Soviet Union chu Afghanistan aṭanga a inhnuhdawh hnua indona la chambang  awmchhun chu Afghanistan ram chhunga hnam leh hnam, rin dan leh pawm dan in ang lo te inkarah a ni ta a, tun buaina inṭanna ber hi a lo ni ta a nih chu. 

Al-Qaeda

Al-Qaeda leh Taliban: Afghan Communist Government duh lo pawl Mujahideen peng tam tak zinga tel ve pakhat chu Osama Bin Laden kha a ni. Ani hi Saudi Arabia mi a ni a, Islam sakhua leh kalphung fir taka zuitu a ni. A hruaina hnuaiah Soviet Union an inhnuhdawh hma kum, 1988 ah Al-Qaeda chu Mujahideen peng tam tak zinga din a ni a. Tichuan, Soviet Union kehchhiat hnu, 1994-ah Mujahideen pawl peng pakhat, Afghan Communist Government leh ram dang in rawlh te do turin Taliban te an lo piang ve ta bawk a ni. Taliban, Al-Qaeda leh Mujahideen pawl tam zawk te hi Pakistan din leh thlawp an ni. Taliban te hi Sharia law, Islam sakhaw inkaihhruaina dan fir tak - tual that leh uire te chu thah tur tih te, hmeichhia kum 10 chin chunglam chu zirna pek tawh loh tur tih te, hmeichhiate chuan an hmai chu Burkha in an khuh ngei tur a ni tih te, rukru chu a ban tan sak tur tih te, mipa chuan a hmai leh hmui hmul a zuah ngei tur a ni tih te chu an kalphung a ni. Hei bakah hian Music, Cinema, Television leh media tam zawk mipuite ban phak lohva dah te chu an tum ber a ni. 
 
Taliban

Taliban te an chak tual tual: Taliban chu ‘zirlai’ (student) tihna mai niin, a tam zawk te hi Pashtun Tribe an ni. Pashtun-te hi Afghanistan chhim-chhak leh Pakistan thlang lama tribe te an ni a, Afghnistan ram chhung tribe tam tak zinga a lian ber niin, ṭawng hran Pashto pawh an nei bawk. Hmakhawsang ata tawh Afghan ni siin Afghan sawrkar awpna hnuaiah an awm ngai lova, a ṭhen Durand Line (Pakistan leh Afghanistan ram in ri na) pawn lam, Pakistan ramah eng emaw zat an cheng bawk. An nun kaihruaitu (principle) atan Pashtunwali an nei a, chu chu Sunni Islam zirtirna zulzuiin he’ng Hospitality (mikhual tha tak leh zah taka lo dawnsawn) te, Asylum (ral tlan te humhimna lo pek) te leh Justice and Revenge (dikna kenkawh nana thil ti dik lo tu laka phuba lak) te hi an changvawn a ni. 

Soviet Union 1989-a Afghanistan aṭanga an inhnuhdawh hnuah chuan Mujahideen te chuan Islam-Communist Government chu an bei chhunzawm zel a. Chutih rualin Mujahideen chhungah ngei ngei pawh Pashtuns, Tajiks, Hazaras, Uzbeks tribe te inkarah buaina leh tual chhung indona a awm reng a, Mujahideen thlawp lo pawlin theihtawp chhuahin an lo do let ve bawk, bomb leh silai chawl lovin a puak reng bawk. A chhan ber pawh thuneihna duh vang leh tribe tam takte ngaihdan leh pawmdan a in an tawk loh vang a ni ber mai. Tichuan Soviet Union inhnuhdawh aṭanga kum 5-na, 1994-ah Taliban chuan Afghanistan khawpui Kabul an la a, 1998 a lo thlen meuh chuan Afghanistan zawng zawng za a sawmkua chu an kutah a awm ta a ni. 

Soviet-Union withdraws from Afghanistan, 1989.


Al-Qaeda-in America a bei: Tichuan, 2001 a lo inherchhuak a, September ni 9-ah kan hriat angin Al-Qaeda chuan American Commercial Airlines hijack-in  World Trade Center leh Pentagon an bei a nih kha, a thluak bur chu Osama Bin Laden, Al-Qaeda hotupa a ni. Kum 2002 khan Osama Bin Laden chuan America hnenah, ‘Letter to America’ tih a ziak a, chutah chuan Al-Qaeda in America ram a beih chhan ber ni a a sawi chu Somalia rama Muslim te beihna America-in thlawp vang te, hmun hrang hranga Russia-in Muslim a nekchepna a thlawp vang te, Kashmir-a Muslim te awpbehna (Al-Qaeda te hmuh dan) a thlawp vang te, Lebanon-a Israel a thlawp vangte leh Saudi Arabia-a US sipaite an awm vang ber a ni a.

The attack of World Trade Center on September 9, 2001.

America leh Taliban te inbeihna:
Khawvelin Terrorist te lakah beihpui a thlak: Hetih hun lai hian Osama Bin Laden hi Afghanistan ramah, Taliban te humhimna hnuaiah a awm ni a hriat a ni a. Tichuan America President George Bush chuan Taliban te chu Al-Qaeda hotupa, Osama Bin Laden chu America kuta hlan turin a ti a. Mahse Taliban, khatih hun laia Afghanistan rama sawrkarna siamte chuan an Mujahideen pui Bin Laden-a an hlan loh tak si ah chuan, America, British, Germany, Canada, Australia, France leh Nothern Alliance te leh ‘Anti-Taliban Afghan’ te puihnain 9/11 attack-a mawhphurtute chuan an tuar ngei tur a ni tiin October 2001 aṭangin Al-Qaeda leh Taliban mai bakah, he lai hmuna America leh NATO lamin terrorist a tih te nuai chimit turin beihpui a thlak tak a, hei hi ‘Operation Enduring Freedom’ tih a ni. 
 
A book cover by Tim Ripley - Operation Enduring Freedom: The Seeds of War in Afghanistan. (2002)

Afghanistan-a Taliban te rorelna tihtawp a ni: Tichuan, Operation Enduring Freedom an ṭan aṭanga thla a lo thar meuh chuan Taliban thahrui chu chhahsakin an awm a, Bin Laden-a pawh Tora Bora pukah a bibo zui ta nghal a nih kha. Afghanistan ram hruaitu ni ṭhin Taliban te chu November 2001 a lo thlen meuh chuan an bibo zo ta a, tihcuan United Nations chuan Afghanistan chu sawrkar inrelbawlna felfai tak a awm theihna turin UN Security Council pawmpuinain Hamid Karzai chu interim government din turin a ruat a, a hnu lawkah sawrkarna puitling siam tura thlan tlin a ni nghal bawk. Tin, buaina chhuak veng turin International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) din a ni nghal bawk a ni. Tichuan, Taliban te chu an tluchhia angah ngaih theih mah se a la nung ve reng tho va, Al-Qaeda te pawh tlang chhengchhe kara pukah te biru in an la in kulh reng tho a ni. Tichuan, America in Afghanistan ram chhunga hel pawl a tih, a tira Soviet Union an do laia Pakistan kaltlanga a tanpui char char Mujahideen te bawk chu a do leh ta a nih ber chu. Mahse, Taliban te hi an hmelma an ni ber lova, an hmelma, Afghanistan ram chhung buainaa an inrawlh chhan ber chu Al-Qaeda a ni; Taliban ni lovin.
Hamid Karzai

Afghanistan ram siamṭhat hna ṭan a ni: 2001 aṭanga hian Afghanistan siamthat hna thawhna turin America, United Nations, Non-Governmental Organisation tam tak aṭangin ṭanpuina a lut char char a, indona in a ei ral ram chu tun din tum viau mah se silai leh bomb a khat tawkin a sur reng thova, an hruaitu ruat tharte chuan an eiru reng tho bawk nen. Tichuan, 2003-ah ISAF chu NATO thuhnuaia dah a ni a, tichuan ISAF pawhin NATO ram sipaite chu a aia hlawk leh awmze nei zawkin a hmang thei ta bawk a. Tichuan, 2004-ah Afghanistan chu Presidential System hmang thei tur leh Democrasy kalphung hmanga a ram chhunga hnam hrang hrangte suihkhawmna turin Constitution duan a ni ta a. Hamid Karzai chu elected President hmasa ber atan thlan tlin a ni. Hetih hun lai hian Al-Qaeda leh Taliban te hian an ram chu khaw thlang mite duh dan anga a kal ta chu rilru na takin an lo thlir ve ngei ang a. 2005-ah chuan hun rei tak thleng daih tur ralmuanna din a nih theih nan leh democracy chu a damkhawchhuah ngei theihna turin America sipaite chuan Afghanistan sipaite training leh ralthuam thlenga ṭanpui turin Afghanistan leh America chuan inremna a siampui ta a ni.

Buaina a punlun zel: Hetih mek lai hian Afghanistan ram chhungah Taliban leh Al-Qaeda te chuan indona a khat tawkin an chawkchhuak reng a, an ram chu lak let ngei tumin ṭan an la khawh na fat fat hle. Chutih mek laiin NATO chhunga ram hrang hrangte pawhin Afghanistan ram dinhmun enin Afghan National Army te chu an ram security fawng vuantu an nih a hun ve tawh tih ngaihdan tam tak leh ngaihdan in ang lo tam tak a awm a.

Obama President hunlaia Terrorist te beihna: 2009-a America in President thar Barack Obama an nei a, ani hian Taliban leh Al-Qaeda te chu chak zawk a bei turin sipai tam tak a tirh luh belh a, a tum ber chu Afghanistan leh an tlanchhiatna Pakistan ram chhunga Taliban leh Al-Qaeda te nuai chimih a ni; hemi atan hian Afghan National Army te chu ralthuam leh training ṭha zawk an pe char char bawk a ni. Hamid Karzai chu 2009 inthlanah sawiselna leh dik lohna tam tak karah President atana thlan tlin leh a ni a. Mahse, Hamid Karzai-a sawrkarna hnuaiah corruption a hluar em avangin NATO leh America chuan eirukna ti reh turin hma a la ve reng bawk. Afghanistan ram chhung buaina hi khawtual buaina satliah mai ni lovin, hruaitute dik tawk loh vang a nihna thui tak a awm bawk. America chuan Afghan National Army te tichakna turin sipai, sum leh ralthuam a tir luh belh reng a, a chhan ber pawh America hi Afghanistan-ah khian cham hlen an tum loh vang a ni. 2009 khan Barack Obama chuan US sipaite chu 2011 July thla-ah a hnuhkir tan tur thu a lo sawi tawh nghe nghe. America leh NATO ram te hian Afghanistan sawrkar eirukna hluar lutuk pawhin an mahni ṭanpuitu ber an inhnuhdawh chuan an ram buaina chinfel hna chu an kova nghah an ve beisei vang a ni pakhat a. Hei hi an beisei nge an thei dawn tak tak lo tih hrelawk chungin Afghanistan aṭangin an sipaite an hnukdawk tih erawh zel din thu mai lo chuan fiahna a awm thei lo. NATO pawhin Afghanistan National Security mawhphurhna pawh Afghan National Army kutah 2014 kum tawp aṭanga a awm tawh tur thu a sawi ve bawk.

Osama Bin Laden thah a ni: 2011 a ni a, America in Afghanistan aṭanga a sipaite a hnuhdawh hma lawkin Bin Laden chu Pakistan ramchhungah US Navy Seals ten an that a. Pakistan hi tun buainaah hian dem kan tum a nih pawhin a awm lo hran lo, Soviet-Afghan War aṭang tawha Taliban leh Al-Qaeda te din a, vulh liantu chu America leh Pakistan te tho an nih vang a ni. Bin Laden an thahna hmun pawh Pakistan ramchhungah a ni tlat si a. America in Afghanistan a terrorist ti a a chhal, Taliban leh Al-Qaeda leh pawl dang te a beihchhan ber Osama Bin Laden an thah takah chuan America pawhin a tum ber a tihlawhtling ta a, mahni in lam panin a sipaite a tir let mai tura ngaih laiin sipai tam tham tak erawh 2014 thleng Afghanistan ramchhunga la awm tura tih an ni. Hetih hunlai aṭang daih tawh hian America leh NATO te hi Afghanistan aṭang an inhnukdawk a nih chuan Afghanistan sawrkar hian a ram hi a hum him zo kher lo tura ngaihna leh hlauhna lian tak a awm a. Mahse 2014-ah Germany-ah ram hrang hrangte chuan Afghanistan aṭanga an sipaite hnuhdawhna tur ruahhmanna Conference an nei a, Afghanistan President Hamid Karzai chuan kum tin USD 10 Billion chu International Assistance aṭanga an ramin a mamawh tur thu a sawi nghe nghe. He conference hian a thil tum ber sipai lakletna atana ruahmanna siam chu a tihlawhtling thei ta chuang lo a ni. He Conference a member pawimawh em em, Pakistan, Mujahideen lo vulh lian a, lo siam liantu, Taliban leh Al-Qaeda lo humhimtu chu a tel ve lo bawk a ni; tam takin Pakistan chet dan an dem hle. Tichuan, 2014-ah Afghanistan security chu Afghan National Army kuta dah a ni ta thova, Obama pawhin a sipaite chu 2016 chhunga Afghanistan aṭanga a lakchhuah vek tawh tur thu a sawi bawk.

Front Page of The Washington Post (May 2, 2011).
 
Donald Trump leh Terrorist: 2014 vek hian Afghanistan chuan President thar atan Ashraf Ghani chu an nei a, Taliban te pawhin Afghanistan thuhnun tumin silai leh bomb an sur tir an ṭhulh bik chuang lo. Tichuan, 2017-ah America in President atan Donald Trump an nei ve leh bawk a, America sipaite pawh Barack Obama sawi ang pawh puitlin thei lovin Afghanistan lamah an la buai hle. Tichuan, America chuan a hma aia na zawk mahin beihpui a thlak a, mahse Taliban te erawh an che na tual tual a, suicide bombing chu a hma zawng aiin a nasa a, chu chuan America chu inhnukdawk hleithei lo mai ni lo, a aia nasa zawka beihpui thlak turin a nawr bawk a. Tichuan Trump-a chuan a sipaite chu lakchhuah duh hle mah se, ‘a ṭul dan a zirin’ tih chu a thu ken a ni ta hrih a ni. Trump-a hnuaiah Terrorist beihna kawnga America-in air strike nasat ber a thleng a, Taliban te sum hnar opium chinna leh siamna hmun te nen lam a bei nasa hle. Chu mai piah lamah Pakistan hnena America in ṭanpuina a pek zawng zawng pawh Taliban leh pawl dangte a lo hum ṭhin avangin a ti tawp ta vek bawk a ni.

Ashraf Ghani and Donald Trump
 
Donald Trump sawrkarna hnuaiah America in Taliban te Peace talk a neih pui: Kum 2018 tawp lamah Donalh Trump-a sawrkarna hnuaih America chuan Taliban nena Peace Talk lian tham ber a nei a (Peace talk hi America leh Taliban hian an lo nei nual tawh a, mahse a tam zawk hi Donald Trump-a sawrkar tih lohah khan chuan a hlawhchham a ni). An inbiaknaah chuan America chuan a sipaite a lachhuak ang a, Taliban pawhin thisen chhuah tawh lo tur leh terrorist pawl dangte nena an inzawmna chhutchhah an remti a. Tin, Taliban leh Afghan sawrkar te chuan silai tel lova inbiakna (Intra-Afghan Peace Talk) an nei tur a ni tih a ni bawk. Mahse he inbiaknaah hian Afghanistan sawrkar chu America hian a telh ve lo a ni. America hian an lamṭang ber, a ral do pui ber Afghanistan sawrkar telna ni lo, an do ber Taliban nena inbiakna leh inremsiamna a nei hian zawhna tam tak a siam thei awm e. America hian hel pawl tia a chhal, Taliban te hian an inremsiamna (Peace Talk) hi an zawm ngei dawn a ni tih hi a ring em nge a phenah thil inthup a awm zawk tih pawh ngaihtuahna ti kal thui tak a ni thei ang chu. America leh Taliban Peace talk hnuah pawh Taliban lam hian buaina vawi tam an chawkchhuak a, silai leh bomb a sur ngaiin a la sur reng tho a, America pawhin vawi tam a chhanglet ve leh bawk.
 
Image: The chief American envoy, Zalmay Khalilzad, and Mullah Abdul Ghani Baradar, a Taliban leader, in Doha, Qatar, February 2020.

Afghanistan sawrkar leh Taliban ten inbiakna an nei: Tihcuan September 2020-ah Afghanistan leh Taliban hruaitute chuan America leh Taliban te Peace Talk bawhzuiin Doha-ah inbiakna, ‘Intra-Afghan Peace Talk’ chu an nei ta a. Taliban lamin an pawl, Afghan sawkarin jail a a khung te chhuah turin a ngiat a. Afghanistan sawrkar leh Taliban te chuan Afghanistan chu ram ralmuang ni se tih an duh ve ve a, mahse Taliban chuan Islam sakhaw inkaihhruaina, Sharia Law fir taka hman a ni tur a ni tih chu an chang vawn a ni bur mai.

America President thar Joe Biden-an a sipaite a lak let tur thu a puang: Tichuan, January 2021-ah America chuan President thar, Joe Biden a nei a. Joe Biden pawhin a hmaa President nihna lo chelh tawhte ang bawkin America sipaite chu lak let a tum ruh hle. Joe Biden danglamna erawh a hmaa President Obama leh Trump te ang ni lovin a sipaite chu Intra-Afghan Peace Talk dinhmun chu eng pawh nise Afghanistan ram aṭanga a sipaite lakchhuah ngei a tumna kha a ni. A ni tiam atan September 11, 2021 (9/11 kum 20 champha) chu ruat a ni. Hetih mek lai hian Taliban chuan foreign force te an kir vek hma loh chuan eng inbiakna mah ram dang emaw, Afghan sawrkar emaw a neihpui tawh loh tur thu an lo sawi ve leh bawk a. An thuchhuah aṭang hian America leh NATO ram sipaite chhuah hun hi Taliban hian dingdihlipin an lo thlir ve reng tawh a ni tih a hriat theih.

US America President Joe Biden.
 
Taliban lamin Kabul an la: Biden-an America leh NATO ram ten Afghanistan ram an chhuahsan dawn tih a puang aṭangin Taliban chu beisei phak baka chakin an lo inlar ta a, hun rei lo te chhungin Afghanistan khawpui Kabul chu August 15, 2021 khan Afghan Sipaite nena indona mumal pawh nei lovin an la fel ta der a nih kha.
 

Taliban in Afghan Presidential Palace, August 2021.

Afghanistan ramchhung buaina lo irhchhuah dan tlangpui chu kan thlir ta a, mahse kan rilru-a zawhna lian ber chu America, Afghanistan leh Taliban te inkar khi a ni a. Eng vangin nge America hian kum 20 chuang zet Taliban leh Afghanistan bawr vela Terrorist te laka beihpui an thlak tawh hnuah America hi inhnukdawk ta mai nge a nih le?
1. America-in indona a sual tawh zawng zawnga indona rei ber, ‘War of Terror’ khi tawp thei lo leh hnehna chan theih lohna angah America leh NATO ramte hian an ngai pawh a ni maithei. Tin, sakhuana hminga indona reng rengah chuan miin a nunna a hlan phal a, a kaw tawp thleng a ṭan a huam vangin hneh an har a, an fei fat ṭhin pawh a ni reng a ni.

2. America leh NATO ramte hian Afghanistan ramchhunga sawrkarna leh inrelbawlna fel tak siam hi an thil tum ber a ni lo a ni tih kan hriat a ṭha. Afghanistan rama an tum ber chu 9/11 beihna avanga phuba lak leh tu emaw sawi ang deuha terrorist te chetna, ‘a zung nena pho ro’ a ni ber a. Mahse, an tum ber Bin Laden-a an thah aṭang khan an la awm ta reng a, an tum aia rei an cham ve pawh a ni pakhat a. Mahse, an thil tum ber chu terrorist nuai bo ni ta se, Taliban pawh an la awm a, Al-Qaeda pawh a la nung reng tho si a, an tum bulpui ber hi Terrorist nuai chimih hi a ni reng em, hetiang mai maia tawp leh tur si hi eng vanga kum 20 chuang nunna leh sum senga terrorist te khi do nge an nih tih zawhna chhanna erawh chhiartu ngaihdan ni sela.

3. Afghanistan ramchhung buaina chingfel tur hian America leh NATO te hian an mi leh sa nunna tam tak an chan a, sum leh ralthuam tam tak a luangral a. Midang ramchhung buaina chingfel tura kumhaw cham hi an tlin tawh bik lo pawh a ni thei. Kan hriat angin, ‘Afghan Army te khan Taliban ho kha an lo do let ve a ni’ tia sawi tur mang pawh a awm lova, hei hi Biden-a chuan, ‘Mahni ram pawh chhan ngam lo te tana kan sipaite thisen a luan hi kan mawhphurna a ni tawh lo’ tia a sawi kha a dikna chin thui takin a awm a. Mahse, America leh NATO ramte hian eng emaw chen chu Taliban te leh hel pawl la bei turin sum leh ralthuam a nei tha tawk a. Hma hun an thlirin awmzia a awm tak tak lo an ti pawh a ni mahna!

4. Tin, kan sawi tak ang khan America leh NATO te hi Afghanistan ram chhunga kum 20 a inkulh chhung khan Afghan National Army te chu sum leh ralthuam hmanga tichakin training ṭha tak pek an ni a. Joe Biden pawhin Afghan National Army te hi he’ng kum chhung hian a let thum chuangin an pung hman a, traning leh ralthuam ṭha ber ber, ram changkang ber berte hman ang bawk an hmang ve a ni tiin Biden-a khan July 2021 khan a lo sawi tawh a. Hei hian dikna chin thui tak a nei a, dik lohna chin thui tak a nei bawk. Afghan National Army te hi Taliban-te lo do let turin an chak tawk tawh anga ngaih vanga inhnukdawk an ni bawk. Tin, America leh NATO te hian Afghanistan rama cham hlen khi an tum lo hrim hrim mai piah lamah an sipaite chu Obama President hunlai atang tawhin lakchhuah an tum reng tawh a ni tih kan hriat kha. Mahse, Biden-a’n, “Kan beisei aiin boruak a inthlak chak” a tih thumal te khan zawhna a ti tam thei viau bawk. America leh NATO hian Afghanistan an chhuahsan dawn hian Afghan National Army te hian Taliban te an do hneh dawn lo tih hre reng chungin an chhuak a ni thei ang em? Chuti ni se, a chhan eng vang nge ni ang tih lam chu chhu zui tawh lo ta zawk ila.

Eng vangin nge Afghanistan chu Taliban te kutah a tlukluh tak?
1. Taliban te pawhin an ral do te ang bawkin indona tawp hleithei lo, ‘war of terror’ hi an hne ve hle tawhin a rinawm a. An beisei ram, Islam lal ram din a, an duh dan taka ram hruai chu an thisen leh nunna tam tak thapin an tlir ve reng a. America leh NATO sipaite an chhuak dawn tihchian a nih aṭang khan Taliban te rilruah nasa takin phurna a awm belh ngei ang a. Chu chuan chakna thahrui nasa tak a pe ve pawh a ni ngei ang. Tlem te si, training pawh ramhnuai leh kham chengchhe kara inkulh chunga nei ṭhin te hi a tawpa a fawng chelhtu an ni thei tlat a ni. Taliban te hian tih hram hramna nun an nei tlat a ni.

2. A hmaa kan sawi tawh angin Afghan National Army te America leh NATO ram te puihnain hi nasa taka thuam chak an ni a, sipai 300,000 chuang an nih thu tar lan a ni bawk, chutih laiin an do ber Taliban te erawh 75,000 chuang awrh ni a ngaih a ni. Mahse, a tlem zawkin a tam zawk chu a tlawm thei tlat si. A chhan tam tak zingah chuan Afghanitan sawrkar chhung hian hmasang ata tawh buaina, tualthahna leh eirukna a hluar em em a. America leh NATO ram aṭanga Afghanistan ram chhunga sum leh ralthuam lut te hi ram hruaitute’n ram siamṭhatna ngai pawimawh zo tawk lovin an eiru nasa hle anga sawi a tam hle. Chutiang bawkin sipai 300,000 zingah khian Ghost Army an tih, an hming sipaia inziaklut, mahse a tak hmuh tur awm si lo, an hlawh erawh an chhungten an telsak tak tam tak an awm nia hriat a ni bawk. Chumi awmzia chu Afgan National Army te khi a nihna takah chuan 300,000 aiin an tlem fe tihna a ni. Chu mai bakah, corruption in an sawrkar ber a luhkhung avangin an sipaite’n hlawh an hmu ṭha lova, hlawh hmu lo tu chuan a thawhhlawk tak tak thei lo pawh a ni pakhat ang a. Ram hmangaihna rilru tak tak pu lo tan chuan thih huama Taliban leh hel pawl lo beih let chu tan tura mahni lu rawlh nen danglamna a awm tam awm love.

3. Tin, Taliban te hi mi mawl awm khawm an ni lova, ngaihdan thuhmun, Islam zirtirnain a suihzawmte an ni a. An inunauna leh beiseina ringawt pawh Afghan Army te tan chuan chak lohna tham a tling ve hrim hrim a ni.

4. Taliban te hian Afghan National Army post tam tak an luhkhung a, rawng taka che ṭhin angah ngai mah ila, an hmaa inpe te erawh khawih lovin an kal tir mai ṭhin. Chu mai ni lovin, Aghan sipai hlawh hmu ṭha lo te chu remchanna leiin pawisa thlenga an pek ṭhin thu hmun tam takah chhiar tur a awm a, chu chuan Afghan sipaite zingah ngei ngei pawh a hming ve maia sipai ni ve mai mai an tam phah hle awm e. An sawrkar, hlawh pawh pe ṭha thei lo, an chan ai ei zo tute tana lu chum ban chum huama indona tualzawla nunna va thap turin ram hmangaihnain an ṭhinlungah zung a kaih tawk lo hle thei bawk.


Tlipna:
Mizoram pawh ṭhenawm state te nen ram ri leh hnam thilah kan buai ta fova, mahse chu chuan hnam inunauna leh hmangaihna a tipung a, mittui leh thisen luang karah pawh Mizo hnam peng hrang hrangte’n chakna leh inunauna thar kan hmu ṭhin. Pawn lamin kan ram hi min hnenchhuh tum ṭhin mah se chhung lama hmangaihna leh inunaunaa suihzawma kan awm chhung chuan Mizoram hi ram leh hnam ropui leh thil ti thei ber ber ten min run mah se, ‘Zoram hi Kan Ram a Ni’ tiin a tawpa hnehna hla do chhamtu kan ni zawk zel ang. Mahse, ram leh hnam hmelma chu chhung lam aṭanga eirukna, tualthahna, mahni ngaihdan dik bera pawm vanga midang ngaihdan hnualsuatna, pawn lam ramte thil tum avanga chhung lam buaina aṭanga inṭan a nih chuan Afghanistan ram chan ang khi Mizoram hian a hlat tawp lo thung a. Tuna Afghanistan ram buainaah khian, ‘Tu nge mawhphurtu?’, ‘Tu nge dem tur?’, Taliban nge, America nge, Afghanistan sawrkar eirukna leh inrelbawlna fel tawk loh vang nge, lal awpna hnuaina an awm lai aṭang tawha an hnam, sakhua leh politics chhunga buaina lo inmut alhchhuak ta khi nge, hel pawl lo din a, lo humhimtu Pakistan tih lam chu thlirna tlang, awn lam bik nei aṭanga thu kan vuak thluk lohna turin chhu zui ta lo ila, chhiartute zalennaah dan ta mai ila. Mahse, hei erawh kan thinlungin vawng tlat ila, “Ram chu pawn lam aṭanga keuh thluka a awm chuan a dingchhuak leh mai ṭhin; chhung lama suihzawmtu inunauna leh lungrualna thahrui an neih tlat chuan. Mahse, chu lungrualna leh inunauna thahrui chu chhah a nih a, ram chu amah leh amah a indo a nih chuan chu ram tan chuan siamṭhat tawh rual loh tawpna a thleng ṭhin a ni” tih hi.

An empire toppled by its enemies can rise again. 
But one which crumbles from within? That's dead... forever.
 - Baron Helmut Zemo

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