MIPUITE KAN HARHCHHUAH A TUL

- K Remruatfela

A thupui han chhiar tawp hi chuan engkawngah ber nge tih hriatthiam a har mai thei a. Amaherawhchu, tun tumah chuan Dan zirna ni pah fawmin mihringte dikna leh zahawmna humhimnana an innghahna lungphum pahnih – ‘Procedure established by law’ tih leh ‘Due process of law’ tih ka rawn khaikhin dawn a ni.

‘Procedure Established by Law’ tih hi India ramin mihringte dikna leh zahawmna humhimna tura a Dan lekkawh lai a ni a. Fundamental Rights mai bakah Human Rights humhimna tura kulh bing sâng a ni. Art. 21 ah kan hmuh angin, “No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to the procedure established by Law” tih a ni a. A awmzia ber chu Evi leh Adama thlah mihring tupawh hian pianpui dikna an neih vek avangin mi tupawh hi Dan tlawhchhan tur a awm a nih ngawt loh chuan an dikna leh zalenna hi kan rahbehsak tur a ni lo tihna a ni a. Heta Dan a tih ber hi ‘Written Law’ a ni a. Chu chu ram Danpuiin Ziaka a dan tlawhchhan chauh lo chuan tihna a ni e. ‘…except according to the procedure established by law’ tih a nih vangin tun hma khan ram hruaitu tam tak chuan an lo hmangsual tawh thin a. Ziaka an dan siam behchhanin mihringte dikna an rahbeh zeuh zeuh thin avangin Supreme Court chuan _Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India_ case ah ‘procedure established by law’ tihah hian heng thil pathum - ‘just, fair and reasonable’ tih hi a awm tur a ni a ti a. A awmzia ber ni-a alang chu, chu Ziaka dan tlawhchhan tur awm chu a dikin, han ngaihtuah mai pawha thil nihphung pangngai a ni tur a ni tihna a ni ber.

A lehlamah ‘Due process of law’ tih hi a awm leh a. He kalphung hi American ramin an hmang ve thung a. A hmasa nena a danglamna tak chu ‘procedure established by law’ tiha ‘Ziaka dan tlawhchhan tur a awm a nih chauh loh chuan’ tih kha ‘Due process of law’ tih a nih takah chuan Ziak loh dan awmsa atang nena khaikhina thil inmillo leh awmlo (unnatural things) a nih chauh lo chuan tihna lam a kawk thung a. He ziak loh dan a tih tak hi ‘Natural Law’, ‘Principles of Natural Justice’ kan tih bawk hi a ni. Law of Nature lo chhuahna tak chu Bible a ni a. A awmzia ber chu mihring hian kan lo pianchhuah phat atang hian dikna ‘Birth Right’ ‘Natural Right’ kan nei nghal a. Chu chu mihring tu pawhin kan chhia leh tha hriatna thiang taka hmanga kan ngaihtuah vang vanga thil awm leh mawi ni-a kan hriatna hi a ni. Aristotle chuan ‘the natural sense of what is right and what is wrong’ tiin a lo hrilhfiah a. Chuta tanga thlir chuan ‘Due process of law’ tih chu mihring nihphung pel leh thil nihphung pangngai bak a nih chauh lo chuan mi tupawh dikna le zahna hi kan rahbehsak thiang lo tihna a ni ta ber. Chuvangin, India ramin kan Natural Right humhimnana ‘Procedure established by law’ tih kan hman aiin America ramin ‘Due Process of law’ tih an hman hian a huam zau zawk hle a ni tih kan hre thei ang.
Heta ka lo sawi uar duh lai tak ni ta chu mihringte, a bik takin khua leh tuite hian he kan dikna leh chanvo hi kan hriaiin kan ngaihven tâwk em, tih hi a ni. Khawi khawi Office ah emaw leh Vantlâng puipuina hmun velah te ziak leh ziak loh dan hmuh leh hriattur a awm fo thin a. Entirnan, Sawrkar Office ah chuan kan mamawh thil kan thlen chângin a thawktuten hrilhfiahna pe si lovin phal a ni lo, Danin rem a ti lo ti-a mipuite min chhan tawp châng hriat tur a awm fo thin a. Tin, Vantlâng punkhâwmna hmunah te pawh aurinna leh Notice Board hrang hrangah thu dehkhilh siamin, entirnan: ‘…. A huaihawttuten mawh kan phur lovang” ; ‘…. Chumi neitute chuan mawh kan phur lovang’ tih ang zawnga indehkilh ching hriattur leh hmuh tur a awm fo thin bawk a. Mipuite hian ‘… e a lo ni maw..’ ti-a ngawihpui mai hi kan ching thin a. Tunah erawh chuan kan harhchhuah a hun ta khawp mai.

Mihring pangngai kan nihna anga kan chanvo diktak chu ‘Right to be heard’ (thil nihphung hriat) hi a ni a. Chuvangin, hetianga thu dehkilh hriat tur a awm châng pawh hian ngawi liam mai lovin, ‘khawi dan nge an tlawhchhan’, ‘Ziaka dan hmuh tur a awm em’, ‘lo awm ta pawh ni se chu Dân chu ‘just’, ‘fair’ & ‘reasonable’ a ni reng em tih hi kan chik fo tur a ni. A awmzia ber chu chu an Dan siam chu Sawrkar atanga ziaka dan awm pawh ni se, kan mihring dikna rahbehna leh tihbawrhbanna ni-a kan hriat phawt chuan Court ah kan zualko thei reng a. Anni Dan hre mite chuan kan ai min lo awhsak tawh mai dawn a ni. Chu chu ‘Judicial Review’ ti-a kan sawi fo thin pawh hi a ni e. Dan innghahna bul chu Natural Law hi a ni si a.

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