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REPUBLIC DAY PUAL | INDIAN DANPUI ZIARANG LEH A INNGHAHNA




India ram hi khawvVela Democracy sawrkar lian ber leh ram Danpui (Constitution) nei sei ber ni-a sawi thin a ni a. Chumi chhunga cheng thei leh khawsa theia Pathianin Zofate min lo siam hi a ropuiin a hlu em em a ni. Kan hriat theuh angin India ram hi Hindu bitna ram leh Muslim lalram thin a ni a. Amaherawhchu, hetihlaia kan vanneihna em em chu Khawvelah hian Bible behchhana Danpui (Constitution) duang ram 5 an awm a, chung zingah chuan kan ram sawrkar, India ram pawh tel ve-in, kan ram Danpui hi Bible behchhana (Principles of Natural Justice) duan leh remkhawm vek a ni a. A ropuiin a lawmawm em em a, kan chan bik hi kan vannei hle tihloh rual a ni lo.


Danpui Lo Chhuahna Hmahruai (Background of Indian Constitution):
Kum 1600 khan Kumpinu Lalnu Queen Elizabeth-i chuan a ram awp tihzau zel nan leh Kumpinu lalram tihchangtlun nan East India Company hnenah India rama sumdawn theihna a pe chhuak a. Chuta tang chuan India ramah lo inbunnghet zelin kum 1757 khan Battle of Plassey indona ropui takah Robert Clive chuan Mughal rorelna paihthlain ram leh sawrkar inrelbawlnaah thu leh hla an lo nei tan a. Kum 1773 phei chuan British sawrkarin India ram chhnga rorelna  a lekkawh dan tur leh a awhbeh dan tur ‘The regulating Act of 1773’ chu Parliament ah a puangchhuak ta hial a. Chumia chinah chuan ram rorelnnaah insawhnghet deuh deuhin India ram chu British sawrkar hnuaiah a intalut nghet ta deuh deuh a ni.

Kum 1858 phei chuan Indian Legal system-a hun danglam tak inherchhuakin kum 250 zel Company rorelna in a awpna chu thlakin Kumpinu lal leh a thuihhhruai ten direct in India ram inrelbawlna chu a kaihruai ta a. Chuta tang chuan British ram Danpui tlem tlem te India ram inrelbawlnaah la lutin thubuai rem leh leh chinfel dan kawngah te pawh British ram Danpui ang zulzuia hman zel a lo ni a. Amaherawhcu, Kumpinu sawkarin ram mipuite a enkawl danah lungawilohna nasa tak a awm avangin India ram inrelbawlna Danpui hrang hrang siamthat zel niin a mi chengte mipui dinhmun thlir chung leh an Society dinhmun nena inrem deuh tura sawirem hret hret a ni a. Chung zinga lar deuh deuhte chu ‘The Government of India Act, 1909; The Government of India Act, 1919 leh The Government of India Act, 1935 te hi an ni. Hemi Act pathum hi a pawimawh bikna chhan em em chu hemi Danpui siam thar atanga India mi leh sa dik takten ram inrelbawlnaah thu leh hla an neih ve tanna a nih vang a ni. The Government of Indian Act 1935 phei hi chuan kan ram Danpui inrelbawlna thar, The Government of Indian Act 1947 thulakna ber pakhat leh tuna kan ram Danpui hmanlai innghahna ber pakhat a ni a. Kan ram Danpui ziarang lanchhuahna bul ber tih pawhin kan sawi thei ang.

A Innghahna Lungphum (Preamble):
A tira kan sawi zuai tawh ang khan kan ram Danpui hi Bible behchhana duan leh remkhawm a ni a. A innghahna thu laimu ber chu khuarel dikna, Principles of Natural Justice  a ni. Tin, chumi penga a inngahna leh a bulthut chi hrang hrangte chuan Dan thuhmahruai ‘PREAMBLE’ ah tawi kimchang taka tarlan vek a ni a. He Preamble hi kan ram Danpui ziarang engkim lan vekna  anih avangin Sawrkarin a ngai pawimawh em em a. Dan hriatloh hi sual a nih angin, India khua leh tui zawng zawngte chuan hre vek tura beisei kan ni.

Kan ram Danpuiin a ngaihpawimawh hmasak ber chu India ram hi ‘Sovereign Democratic Republic’ a siam a ni a. A awmzia ni bera lang chu mipuite sawrkar, ram inrelbawlna leh ram hruaitu thanchhuah kawngah mipuiten thuneihna sang ber an neihna leh mipuiten an aiawhna roreltu an thlanchhuah theihna tihna a ni. A dawt lehah chuan ‘Social, Economic & Political Justice’ tih a ni a. A awmzia ber chu mitin intluktlanna, a hausa leh rethei berte thleng pawha roreltu thlanchhuahna leh ram inrorelna kawnga dikna thuhmun neihna a ni. Hei hian mitinte chu dinhmun inang vekah awmin, Communism inrelbawlna anga sum leh pai neih inang vek an nei tur tihna lam a kawk lo va, an phutawk leh an phak tawk ang theuhah Dan hmaah zalenna an nei vek tur a ni tihna a ni ber. A pathumnaah chuan ‘Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship’ tih a ni leh a. A awmzia chu khua leh tui tupawhin an veizawng leh an duhzawng sawichuah theihna leh zalen taka an sakhaw biak duhzawng biak leh tawmpui theihna a ni.

A palinaah chuan ‘equality of status and opprtunities to every citizen’ tih a ni leh a. Dan rorelna hmaah chuan Prime Minister leh dinhmun chhe bera ding pawh inenhranna a awm lo ang tihna a ni ber. A panganaah chuan ‘Fraternity to all the Citizen’ tih a ni a. India ram chuan khua leh tui tinte inunauna leh inhmangaihtawnna a ngai pawimawh hle a, mi zawng zawngten chhungkhat kan ni tih an hriat a, hmangaihna leh lungrualna nena an insuihzawm a, ram leh hnam tana lungrual taka ke an pen za theihna tura inpumkhatna rilru tuhngheh hi ram Danpui inghahna lai chu a ni e tih hi a kawh tum ber chu niin a lang.

Unitary v/s Federal:
Kan ram Danpui chungchanga inhnialna namenlo lo chhuak tawh chu ‘Unitary form of Governement’ a ni nge ‘Federal form of government’ tih hi a ni a. Khawvel ram dang Dan zamlaia, a tha tha te lawrkhawma, ram Danpuia sengluh a nih avangin kan ram Danpui kalhmang hi a nihna tak thliarfel har tak leh sawifiah harsa tak a ni a. British Constitution anga Unitary kalphung lakluh nual a nih laiin American fedaralism chawkluh leh nual tho bawk a ni a. Chutiang chuan a inpawlhsawlh nuai a ni.

Federal form of government kalphung zawmtute kan ni e titu te chuan kan ram Danpui hian double governemt – Central leh State sawrkar min pe a. Tin, heng a thuneihna chinte hi ziaka dahthat thlap a ni bakah tih danglam mai mai theihloh a ni a. Supreme Court meuhin a humhalh a nih avangin kan ram Danpui hian Federalism kalphung a kai em em a. Chuvangin, ‘Federal form of governement’ a ni ber e tiin an tanchhan a. A lehlamah Unitary form of government ti-a sawitu erawh ve thung chuan kan ram Danpui Art. 3 in a tarlan angin Central sawrkarin tul a tih chuan State sawrkar thuneihna la thenin a siksawi theih tih a chuang a. Chu bakah State sawrkar aia Union sawrkar in thuneihna lian zawk leh thuk zawk a neih avangte leh khua leh tui nihna pakhat (Single citizenship) kalphung a zawm avangin hnial rual lovin Unitary form of government kan ni alawm tiin tan an khawh ve tlat bawk a. 

Amaherawhchu, heng ngaihdan pahnih ve ve te hian tling tawk na leh tling tawklohna an neih ve ve avangin pawm zawk tur leh awih zawk tur hriatthiam a har em em a. A hminga Unitary rawng kai si, a taka Federalism kalphung zawmtu a nih avangin Constutional expert te chuan ‘Quasi Federal’ tih hian a sawi fiah ber e tiin an sawi thin.

Parliamentary v/s Presidential:
Kumpinu sawrkarin kum 200 dawn a loh awhbeh tawh kan nih avangin kan ram Danpui zamna leh sawrkar inrelbawlna chi tinrengah British ram Danpui hlimthla thui takin a lang thei a. A zawng zawnga zain entawn vek lo mah ila, thulakna hnar ber leh rinpui bera neih chu a ni tho tho a ni.

Kan ram Danpui pawh hian min awp tu hmasa British ram inrelbawlna angin Parliamnetary form of Government kalphung a zawm a. Amaherawhchu, a kipa kawia zawm diak diak a nih loh avangin American ram inrelbawl dan anga Presidential form of Governement kalphung anna lai tlem tlem a awm bawk a. Zau taka thlir erawh chuan Parliamentary zai diktak chu a lang pha tho mai. Kam ram rorelnaa lu ber President hi Parliament leh mipui aiawhina kan thlanchhuah Legislative member ten an thlan a ni a. Tin, sawrkar khalh tu ber Prime Minister leh a Cabinet zawng zawngte pawh hi Parliament member vekin an thlanchhuah niin, rorelna inpui thuneitu lu ber Speaker thangchhuaktu pawh Parliament member tho an ni. 

Presidential form of Government kalphung zawng lova Pariamentary kalphung kan zawm tlat zawkna hi chhan tha tak a awm a. A bulpui bera lang chu Kumpinu lalram awhbehna hnuaia ata kan chhuah a, zalenna puan kan sin tirh khan kan ram a la retheiin mawlna leh hriatlohna hriin min la nuai nasa em em a. Mipuiten politics awmzia kan la man fuh tawk lovin ram hruaitute zingah pawh Administrator tha kan la haihchham em em a. Chuvangin, kan dan siam thar te leh kan lekkawh danah te duhthusam tawkloh thil a la awm teuh a rinawm avangin dan siamtu (Legislature), dana lekkawhtu (Executive) leh dan endiktu leh venghimtu (Judiciary) te hi an kuta thuneihna tawp dah mai hrih lova, inphungbawm tawna la inpuihtawn hrih kha tul leh tha zawka hriatna a lian hle a. Chuvang maia Parliamentary kalphung zawm zawk rih mai kan niin a lang.

Independent hmel kum 60 chuang kan lo hmu ve ta reng mai a. Mipuite leh hruaitute pawh kan lo fing ve tan ta tial tialin rorelna kalphung pawh kan hre chho ve tial tial ta in a lang ta bawk a. Hnah hlui a lo til a, hnah thar a lo chhuak thin ang hian kan ram inrelbawlna ah pawh hmana tha zawk kha tunah tha tawh lo zawkin, hmana tha lo zawk kha tunah a tha tawh zawk maithei tawh tho a. Chuvangin, khawvel changkanna inherzelah hian Persidential form of government hi kan ram hian kan thatpui tawh zawk mai ang em aw tih pawh hi ngaihtuah theih tak a ni ta.

Seperation of Judiciary:
Presidential forms of Government in a ze ken tel pawimawh tak chu ‘Seperations of powers’ a ni a. A awmzia chu heng ram inrelbawlna bung hrang pathum - Executive, Legislature leh Judiciary te hian an thuneihna zawn theuhah thuneihna vawrtawp an neih a, pawn lam lo inrawlh theihlohna leh an lo inrawlhphaklohna tihna a ni a. Chu kalphung chiah chiah chu America sawrkar hian an hmang a ni.

Amaherawhchu, min awptu hmasa British sawrkar kalphung zulzaia dan zam kan nih avanga Parliamentary form of government kalphung zuitute leh zawm tute zawk kan nih avangin Seperations of powers thuthlung hi a takin kan zawm ve chiah lo va. Tun kan ram Danpuiah leh sawrkar kalphung ah chuan Legislative member leh Executive member ni kawp an awm a. A awmzia ber chu Parliament-a dan siamtu MP vekte atangin Prime Minister leh Minister te ruatchhuah leh an ni a. Chung sawrkarna fawng chelh a, dan kengkawhtute chuan Legislature leh Executive member nih an kawp thin a ni. Tunhnaia kan State ah pawh dan thar an zam hmaa, Seperation of Judiciary a awm hma phei kha chuan thubuai rem leh chinfel lam te thleng thleng hian Executive lam ten an khawih tel a, District thenkhatah phei chuan DC leh MCS Officer ten Magistrate hna an thawk a, Sawrkarna chelhtuten an duh duhin kan Judicial Officer te an sawn kual thin a nih kha!

He Seperation of Judiciary kalphung hi India ram Danpui zam lai pawh khan Constutition zamtu te thinlungah a lo awm tawh thin a. Amaherawhchu, a hma lama sawi lan tawh angin a hunlaia mipui mimir hrim hrim dinhmun ngaihtuahin la tih chi-a an ngaih rih loh avangin ‘Directive Principles of State Policy’, State sawrkar ten an duha an zawm a, an zawm loh theih huangah a dah hrih a. Khawvel hun inher zelah, Judicial officer te hian khawtlangaah dikna (Justice) a awm theihnana hlauh leh ngamloh a neih lo va, dik tak leh huaisen taka hna an thawh theihnana Judicial Officer te a hranga an awm a, State sawrkar control phak lova an awm hi a ngaih tak em avangin, Seperation of Judiciary hi chu kalphung nghet tak angah kan nei chho ta a ni.

Lawyers Paradise:
Indian Constitution hi khawvela Constitution sei ber leh chipchiar ber a ni a. American Constitution aiin a let sarih zetin a sei. Chumi a nih vang chuan dan tesep leh peng hrang a tamin Dan hremi lo leh a zir ve lo te tan chuan hriatthiam a harin hriat sen pawh a ni lo va. Chuvangin, India Danpui hmanlai hi dan hremite Vanram leh nihlawhna ‘Lawyers Paradise’ tiin an sawi phah fo thin reng a ni.

India Danpui hi khawvel ram hrang hrang Danpui hmanlai atanga a tha lai lai lakchhuah leh chuk lawr a nih avangin a hawlkimin a famkim hle a. Thu chang tin mai hian kawhbik leh hawl bik a nei zel a. Hetia han chhiar liam puata thil ni awma kan hriat hi, Dan hremiten an chhiar chuan kawhtum leh sawi lan tum dang nei, awmze hran nei deuh a lo ni leh thin a. Chuvangin, a thu a harin layman te tan chuan hriatthiam hleihtheih pawh a ni lo. Chu tak chu Dan hremite pawimawhna leh tangkaina a ni thung lawi si a. Sawifiah sual leh zirsual awl tak a nih avangin hriilhfiahna kan siam dawn a, a awmzia sawifiah kan tum a nih pawhin a thu pangngai pawngpaw chhiar liam a, lehlin nghal mai tum lovin, hemi chang hian enge a sawi tum a, chumi chang leh khami chang kha a inkalh em, hmeh rem theih a ni em ti-a kan chik a, kan fimkhur zual a ngai em em a ni.

Tin, mimal dikna chanvo humhim leh chawisan hi kan ram danpui hian a ngai pawimawh em em a. Principles of Natural Justice mila mimal dikna chanvo (Human Rights) tundin hi a thil tum lian ber pakhat a ni. Mi tupawh, a ma mimal dikna, Danpuiin a humhim (Fundamental Rights) bawhchhiatsak leh palzut sak a nih chuan direct in High Court mai pawh ni lo, Supreme Court ah a zualko nghal thei a. Supreme Court thuchhuak chu a hnuaia Court awm zawng zawngah rinnghal tur a nih vangin Indian Danpui hnuaiah mitinte dikna chanvo kan nei lian hle a. Heng Danpui hmanga kan dikna chanvo min humsaktute chu Dan hremi “Lawyers” te an nih avangin, Danpui hnuaiah Lawyer te an lalin an zalen em em a. Danpui humhalh leh venhim kawngah te, Danpui hrilhfiah leh karawl (lacunae) hnawhkhah kawngah te leh Dan chelek kawngah hrim hrimte Dan hremi, Lawyer te mawhphurhna leh an chanvo vek a nih avangin khawtlangah ngaihsan leh ensan an hlawhin an tan chuan he kan chenna ram hi Vanram a ni ringawt mai!

Conclusion:
A hmalama kan sawi lan fo tawh angin kan ram Danpui hi khawvel ram hrang hranga Dan hmanlaite nasa taka zirchian leh entawn a nih hnua a thalaite sengluh a ni a. Heti a nih vang hian Dan changtlung leh rintlak tak a ni. Chutihlai chuan Congress party leh a thawhpuite ni ngai lo, Political Party pawl hrang – Janata Dal, BJP etc. te chuan Constitution lem leh rintlak loh tiin vawiduailo Danpui duanthat an lo rawt tawhin, a ruk tak chuan tun thleng hian party manifesto ah an la nei ru hlawm thung a. Mahse, an la hlawhtling thei rihlo zel chu a ni. Kan ram Danpui hi Bible behchhana dan duang hmangtu tlemte zinga mi a nih avangin keini Kristiante leh Tribal te tan chuan dan duhthusam leh a bak awm tawh chuang lo a ni tehmeuh a. Chutianga Danpui tha tak hnuaia khawsa thei tura Siamtuin India Union chhungah min lo hnuklut hi a lawmawm em em a, Pathian hnenah lawmthu sawi ngawih ngawih tur kan ni.

Hawh u, tun atang chuan India mi ni-a kan inngaih theihloh zawng zawngte hi dah tha-in, vai leh hnamdang huatte hi bansan ila. India Danpui tawm thei tura India union chhunga kan awm hi Lalpa min hunna leh vohbik kan nihna a ni tih hriaiin, hnamdang hneha rual khumin, thiamna leh finna kawngah te raltiang i kai mawlh teh ang u…
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