An tobul
Chakma hote hi awmna ram bik nei mumal lo (Nomadic Tribe) anga rei tak an khawsak avangin a tobul pawh hi chiang faka chhutchhuah a harsa a. History ziaktute pawhin chiang leh mumal tak a ziah tur an hre tlem hle a, an rinsiak vel mai mai a ni ber. Mongolian thlah zinga Tibeto-Burman pengkhat an nih ring an awm lain thenkhat erawh chuan Tai-Shan emaw, Mon-khmer thlah emaw atnga lo chhuak niin an ring bawk.

An lan dan chuan China ram atanga an thlahtu te hi lo chhuakin an pemkual an pemkual hnuah Burma rama Arakan vel hi lalte meuh neia awmhmun an khuarna hmasa chu niin a lang. Arakan atang hian tuna Bangladesh ramchhung Chitagong ramchhung Hill Tract ah hian athente chu an pemthla lehin awm hmun an khuar leh a. He hmunah pawh hian an mahni puala LAlte pawh neiin tuma tihbuai lohvin kumj zabi engemaw zah chu an awm bawk a; Tichuan khawvela an in singsak fel tana hnam hrang hrang te ‘hmun leh ram bik’ neia awmhmun an inkhuarlai khan Chakma te chu Arakan leh Chittagong Hill Tracts ah hian an awm ber a. Hengte hi an ram (Homeland) anga an ngaoihtheih awm chhun chu a nit a a ni. Chittagong Hill Tracts ah hian Bengali ho nen an in pawlh hle avangin Bengali tihdan tam tak an lo la ta a, “ An tawng pawh hi Bengali nen inpawlh tak a lo nit a a”. An sakhua Buddism hi engtiklai leh khawi atanga an lo vawn nge tih hriat a harsa hle a. Arakan-ho hnen atanga an lakchhuah a nih hmel ber. Chakma hote pawh hi British Empire hnuaia a an lo awm ve tak khan Mizoram a an tih ang deuh bawkin an Lal (Raja) te chu ban chuang lovin, an Lalte hmangin an enkawl ve mai thin.

Instagram lamah a ziaktu:

Mizorama an lo luh dan, Khua an din tan leh Mizoram a an dinhmunte
i) Chakma hoten Mizoram leilung an rawn rah hmasak ber tum chu 1872 khan a ni. British Sipaiten Mizoram an rawn run dawn khan An puak phur turin Chakma 500 vellai an rawn hruai a,. heng Chakma puakphurte hi an Lalnu Kalindi Rani in a tirhte an ni nghe nghe a ni. Hemi tuma British Sipai hruaitu Capt. Lewin chuan, “ Chakma ho te chuan he Lushai Hills hi an vawikhat hmuhna a ni,” tiin a record nghe nghe a ni. Heng Chakma puakphurte hi an cham bang mai lova, an haw leh vek a ni. Mahse, heta lokalte atang hian Tlabung thlanglam lui kam vel chu ramruak leh ngawpui, thing leh mau laktur tamna hmun a ni tih an hre tan ta a. Tichuan kum 1905 vel atang khan Samakkaih Luikam velah an rawn lut tan ta a.Heti lai vel hian mihring an la thawl em avangin Mizo Lalte pawh khan ‘Chhiahkhua’ atan tiin an lo lalut ve mai ni tur a ni. Tiante,Lungno,Thingsen leh Muallianpuilalram chhungah te hian an lo lut hmasa niin alang. Tin, Kum 1918 vel khan chakma thenkhat chu Pukzing Lal khua leh tui angin Marpara velah an awm tih kan hmu bawk. Kum 1925 vel khan Phuldungsei Lalram Chhunga Mualvawm leh Aivaphai velah chhiah chawiin khua an din tan bawk.

Tin, Indopui-II na alai vel khan chakma tamtak chu Labour Corps atangin Mizoram an lo lut bawk a, hengmite hi Tamtak chu hawkir leh tawh lovin an chambang ta bawk niin a lang.

ii) British hunlaia Mizoram chhunga Chakma khawdin phalna hmasa ber chu kum 1933 khan Lunglei SDO in hetiang hian a chhuah a ni.

“Order No. 4 of 1933-34, Dated:Lunglei, 16,May,1933

C.I Taia’s reports received. Previous paper persued.Debicharan is allowed to settle with his 15 houses in the land of Lukusuri, the provisional boundary of which will be as follows:

West – Thega Lui 
North – Upto the Lukisuri Lui from its junction with the Thega to its source in the Uiphum Tlang
East – Along the Uiphum Tlang to the source of Lukisuri Lui
South – Down the Lukisuri Lui from its source in the Uiphum Tlang to its junction with the Thega.

In the event of Dibicharan committing any misdeamour, he is liable to be turned out on being given amonths notice.”

Hemi Lukisuri Khua ah hian Debicharan hian Mizo lal ang deuhvin ro a rel zui ta zel a. Kum 1954 a Mizo lalte ban tir an nih tum khan Debicharan fapa Lambomani chuan lal banna compensation pawh kha Rs – 3840 pawh a dawng ve nghe nghe a ni. Tin, hemi khua bak hi chu sorkar phalna a Chakma khua, mahni a roinrelbawl thei din a awmlo niin a lang.

iii) British hun lai kha chuan Chakmahote hi Chittagong leh Arakan lamah te British khua leh tui an ni na in; Mizoram ah erawh ramdang mi anga ngaih an ni thung. Chakma khaw din phalna thupek kan han tarlan taka tang pawh hian ‘Mikhual chamrei’ ang leka ngaih an nihzia a hmuh theih. Tin, chhiah (House tax) pek chungchang ah pawh ram pawn lam mi – Chakma te ang chu aram leilung mite nen angkhata en an ni ngai lo. Hemi chungchang ah kum 1934 a sawrkar thu chhuah lo en ila:- 

“In exercise of the power conferred by section 35 of the Chin Hills regulation 1896 (Regulation V of 1896) as extended to the Lushai Hills District by Notification No 2287 AP dated the 10th March, 1932, and No 2194 AP, dated 13th March, 1933, the government of Assam are pleased to prescribe with effect from the 1st of August, 1934, for the said District, the taxes specified in the Schedule annexed hereto.

Lushai – House tax at Rs 2/- per year throughout the Districts.
Non – Lushai – House tax at Rs 5 per year.”

(N.B. British hun lai a ‘Lushais’ tih khian tuna Mizo inti tate hi min huamtir vek a. Tunlai a intihhranna rilru nei deuh ta a lang- Lakher, Lai leh Hmarte pawh hian ‘Lushais’ tih ah hian ihe lovin an lo inhuamtir vek thin bawk ; tax pawh Rs 2/- an pe a ni. Tun a anmahni huam chiang leh zual tura ‘Mizo’ tia kan invuah hnuah phei hi chuan an intih Mizo lohna chhantur awmin alanglo. Chuti chung pawh a an la inti Mizo duhlo a nih pawhin kan tlawnna tur emaw, an hming pual bika duhsakna kan pek phahna tur awmin a lang lo. Mizoram chu Mizote tan a ni hmasaber tur a ni.)

Chakma hote chu non-Lushais a chhiar an nih avangin House Tax pawh Rs 5/- an pe bik reng a ni.

iv) Tin, Chakma ho chu ramdang mi (Non-Indigenous) anga ngaih an nih avangin leh anlo pun tual tual si avangin khaw hmun leh in hmun pek chungchang ah pawh nasataka khuahkhirh bik an ni. Hemi chungchang a E.S Hyde, Superintendent South Lushai Hills in kum 1944 a athu chhuahah hian a chiang khawp mai. Hetiangin:-

The following principles will be observed in dealing with the Chakma (and Tipera) settlements and bastis in South Lushai Hills:-

1. Owing to the large number of Chakma now settled in South Lushai Hills, most of whom have considerable families, no further application for settlement will be considered but for the most exceptional reasons.

2. No passes for separate houses will be considered except where the applicant is :- (a) The grown up married son of a Chakma who had settled for at least ten years in the Lushai Hills. (b) The grown married grandson of such a settler.

In both these cases, the applicant himself must also be a permanent resident of the Lushai Hills. Passes for daughters will not be considered. If these marry outside Chakma, they must go to their husband’s village. If they marry Lushai Chakma the husband will be covered by the rules above.

3. The site of each Chakma bastis will be decided by the chief in consultation with the Karbari, and will be reported to the circle Interpreter. The site will not be changed without the permission of the Sub-Divisional Officer or Superintendent.The name of the Karbari with the location of the basti will be reported for record in this office.

4. The bastis shall consist of not less than 15 houses which are to be concentrated in a village site,or along a lane which shall not be more than half a mile long.No dwelling shall be built outside this site,other than jhum houses and granaries,etc.

5. The Chakma will make and maintain throughout the year a footpath from their basti to the Chief Village.

6. The Rules about jhums on the river banks will be strickly observed,and order this office will be obtained before any departure is made from this rule.

7. Chief will be responsible for the general control of the Chakmas in their ‘ram’. They will normally work through the Karbari who will be removable on the recommendation of the Chief if he is found to be either ineffective, or of bad character.

8. Mass movement of a whole or the large part of the basti from one Chief’s ‘ram’ to another will require the prior sanction of the Sub-Divisional Officer or Superintsndent. Individual shifting of ‘Pemming’ of houses snd families will be allowed as Lushai villages”.

Dated, Lunglei
the 21st March 1949
Sd/- E.S. Hyde,
Superintendent, South Lushai Hills.

Hemi chhunzawmna ang deuh hian Superintendent of Lushai Hills chuan kum 1949 khan order dang a siam leh a:

Extract from the Inspection note of Superintendent, Lushai Hills, on SDO’s office, Lungleh:

“(2) Chakma and Tripura Register: No new passes are being issued. These people are foreigners, and I do not see any reason why they should pay tax at the foreigners’ rate of Rs.5/- each. Taxes must be realized at this rate from 1950-51. Mr. Hydes order dated 21st March 1944 should be re-published from both Lungleh and Aijal. All Chiefs and C.Is should be asked to report the names of Chakmas and Tripuras who entered the District in violation of that order after1944. This list must reach me by 31-1-50. Any chief who does not report the infiltration of Chakmas and Triptiuras to their ‘rams’ will be dealt with severely. All chiefs should be warned accordingly.”

No.10385G/11-7 of 2-12-49
Extract to Officer, i/c Housetax for doing the needful.
For Superintendent, Lushai Hills.

India Independent hnu thleng pawh khan hun engemawti chhung chu sawrkar chuan Chakma khuahkhirna dan chu a keng kawh zel a. Mizo District Counvil din fel hnu lawkah hetiang hian D.C. Aijal chuan order a chhuah leh a;-

Standing order No. 5 of 1954

“It is hereby notified for information and strict compliance by all chiefs and headmen in the Lushai Hills District that no new influx of Chakmas and Tripuras will be allowed without the prio permission in writting of the Deputy Commissioner, Lushai Hills.

Serious notice will be taken if any chief/headman fails to report the names and perticulars of new arrivals (Chakmas and Tripuras) in his jurisdiction.”

Deputy Commissioner of Lushai Hills 
Memo. No.GP.21/54/52,
Dated, Aijal the 2nd July,1954.

Chakma te hi engtia Mizoram khua leh tui (citizen) lo ni ta nge an nih?
British hun lai kha chuan Chakma homeland a kan ngaih ber Arakan leh Chittagong Hill Tract te pawh kha India ram ang thovin British Empire rorelna hnuaiah an awm ve a. Chutichuan, India indan lai a India ram chhunga Chakma lo awm nghet (refugee nilo) ho kha chu India citizen ang angaih an nit a mai . Mizoram chhunga lo in bengbel tawh Chakma te pawh kha Mizoram khua leh tui angin kan pawm zui ta a ni mai. Mizo tam tak pawh Burma ram arin luh chin a lo chengsa te kha chu Burma citizen an lo ni mai ang deuh hi a ni ang. Amaherawh chu, India indan hnua phalna nei lova aruk arala rawn pemlut te erawh hi chu thliar hran ngei ngei an tul ta a ni. Tuna Mizorama mizote aia tam daih hi Chakma ho Chittagong Hill Tract leh Arakan ah te an awm a. India indan hnua lo lut te pawh Mizoram khua leh tui anga kan lo pawm zel mai chuan dankalh a nih bakah Mizo hnam tan a la pawi thui hle thei ang.

Mizorama Chakma te lo pun dan leh pun chhan
Kan sawi tak ang khan tun hma deuh British hunlai thleng pawh khan tuna Mizoram chhunga Chakma ho awmna zawng zawng saw, Mizo Lalte ram vek a ni a. Ram ala thawl em avangin Chakmaho te chu permit pein, condision awm thlapin, an lo awm hawh tir a ni. Tax pawh ram dang mi anga pek tir an ni kan tih tawh kha.

Heti taka sap hovin kan Mizoram min lo humhalhsak an tumna rilru kha a zahawmin a ropui the lul nen, India an indan khan kan ram hruaitu hmasa ten chhunzawm na chang an hre talo ni alang hi a pawi khawp mai. Tichuan, kum 1953 a Mizo District Council hmasa berin chhiahkhawnna dan a siam ‘Lushai Hills District (Revenue assessment) Regulation, 1953.’ Chuan Chakma te pawh chu thliarhrang tawh lovin House tax poaw Rs 2/- pek a phal sak ta a ni. India indan tirh a Assam Scheduled Tribe List, 1950 a siamah chuan Chakma telh an nih loh laiin kum 1956 a Assam Scheduled Tribe List siam that ah chuan Chakma te chu telh an ni ve tan ta bawk a. (Vide Govt. of India, Ministry of Law, Notification No. SRO. 2477-A dated 29th/10th/1956, and published by the Govt. of Nagaland Vide Notification No. TAD/BC/1/55 dated 25th-1st-1957). Heihi Mizoramin kum 1972 a UT kan lo nih pawh khan kan chhawm chho ta zel mai a ni.

British hovin India khawmualpui an han tin san khan Chakma te tana vanduaithlak takin an Homeland ah te hian minority nihna an cchang ta a. Myanmar leh Bangladesh te hi India ram ang a minority te humhalh kawnga ngilnei lah bengvar an nih loh avangin harsatna tamtak an tawk ta a ni. Mahni pual a inrelbawlna khawl (Council) angte pek chu sawi loh, tihduhdah leh hmasawnna kawng a hlamchhiah chu an chan tawk a ni a mai a. Heihi India ram a refugee an rawn tlan luh vak vak na chhan pawh hi a ni. India hmarchhakah chuan Mizoram, Tripura leh Arunachal Pradesh-ahte Chakma engemawzat an rawn lut ta renga. Tripura a awm tam zawk leh Arunachal Pradesh ah awm zawng zawngte hi ‘refugee’ anga chhiar leh chhinchhiah an nih laiin Mizoram, an rawn luh tamna berah chuan tumah refugee anga chhiar emaw chhinchhiah emaw an awmlo ni in alang. Hei pawh hi Mizo mipui leh hruaitute kan lo inthlahdah vang em ni ang aw…?

iii) Chutia Chakma-ho te chu an mahni Homeland ah pawh awm tha hleithei lova an siam lai chuan Mizoram ah chuan ‘Refugee’ ang pawh a chhiar lem lovin kan luh tir hmiah hmiah mai niin a lang. Kan Politician thenkhatte lahin ‘Vote bank’ ang leka ngaiin an lo tlawn zawk mah emaw tih tur a ni. Autonomous District Council te pek an lo nih zel takah phei chuan British hunlai a an mikhualna ramah hian ‘ram neitu’ nihna an lo chang ve ta; a tih theih ta hial mai. Tichuan, tunlai khawvela Chakma ten an mahni hminga inrelbawlna khawl(Council) an neihna awmchhun chu Mizoram hi an ni rih mai awm e. (Tunhnaiah khan Bangladeshin pek ve an in tiam a, Tripura refugee thlem hawn nan an hmang a. Mahse, a tak erawh chuan a la thleng lo). Tichuan, Mizoram chu Chakma hote huangtau ngamna ber UT hial pawh an dilna ngamna ram awmchhun a lo nita a. Heihi Chakma-hoMizorama an lo punna chhan ber chu a ni.

iv) Mizorama Chakma te lo punchak dan record thenkhat atanga kan hmuh theihte chu hengte hi a ni:-

Year - Chakma population - Growth Rate%
1901 - 198 -
1911 - 302 - 52
1921 - 680 - 125
1931 - 836 - 22
1941 - 5,088 - 508
1951 - 11,435 - 124
1961 - 19,327 - 69
1971 - 22,392 - 16
1981 - 39,905 - 78

Tunah hian an mahni Chakma ho sawidan chuan Mizoramah mi 80,000-100000/- vel awm tawh a ngaih a ni.

Chakma ten UT an dil chungchang
Chakma-hoten Mizoram leilung atang ngeia anmahni puala UT neih an dil, Rajya Sabha Committee on petititions in an lo re commened thei mai kha Zofaten mak kan tiin min barakhaih hle a. Chakma-hote hian keini Mizo ai hianPoliticics leh diplomacy an lo thiam ta zawk em ni chu aw…? Tih mai pawh awl a ni. Kha Committee khan tuna Chakma District Council huamchin saw zauh leh a, Chakma-hote tan UT pek an rawt bakah hnial fung mak angreng tak mai an rawn la chhuaka: “Chakma-hote homeland Arakan leh Chittagong Hill Tract te hi India ram chhung ah lo rin luh nita sela chuan heng; Chakma te pawh India Citizen an lo ni mai dawn a. Chuvangin, duta tak leh dimdawih taka en tur an ni e,” an rawn ti kha ani ber a. Kan ngaihtuahna tihzauh nan kan rilruah heng zawhna te hi lo in zawt chhin ila:-

Mizoramah hian India Citizen dik tak a chhiar theih; Chakma engzat nge awma an hriat? Nge, Chakma hovin anmahni zat ni a an in chhal apiang kha an pawm maiin, India Citizen vekah an ngai nghal bawk?

Chakma-hote chu tuna an Autonomous District chhungah sawn an len tawh loh van gem ni? An ram zauhsak an rawtna chhan kha? Nge, tuna Chakma District Council pawn lamah sawn Chakma ram emaw, ram ruak pek belh mai tur remchang an va hmu chhuak em ni zawk?

Chakma-hote hian homeland mumal vak an neih loh avangin Mizoram chhungah hian a zau thei ang ber ram lo hauh sak a, UT pek an tum zawk me ni?

Bangladesh te pawh khu India ramah lo tel ve chu nise;tuna Bengali Muslim-ho Assam rama rwn tlanlut zawng zawngte pwh hi Indian citizen anlo ni vet ho dwn a.Anniho pwh hi Assam atangin UT pakhat pek chu an phu ve thovin an hria em?

Vanneihthlak takin heng zawhnate hi chhan ngai rih lovin Home Ministry chuan Rajya Sabha Committee on Petitions rawtna chu alo hnawl ta rih a. Mahse, nakin lawkah an la rawn chawk tho leh lovang tih a sawi theih hauh loh. Kan ram leh hnam humhalh tur hian kan inbuatsaih reng a ngai tih I hria ang u.

Chakma Autonomous District Council
Chakmaho-British hunlaia kan rama mikhual chamrei anga lo awm hawh ve mai mai thin ten Mizoram leilung chhung ngei a Autonomous District Council,-‘khua leh tui nihna mai baka a tir atanga ram neitu(indigenous inhabitant) nihna keng tel thei’ anlo nei ta mai hi chu thilmak a tlinga.He thil hi ram neitu Mizo mipuite min rawn lo leh parliament pawhin hriatpui lohva vai Officer lian hovin dan ang pawh nilova anlo pek mai niin alang. Thil pakhat sawibelh ngai chu. Engvangin nge khatih laia kan vai officer liante khan Chakma-ho kha an duhsak emem a, dan leh hrai pawh pawisa zo tawh lova District Council pek tuma hma an lak vak mai le? Mipui awptu hmasa British Officer ten nen chuan an Policy a va inpersan ta ve? A chhan a awm tih ringin politics lamah kan hranghluite ka zawt kual a. An sawidan tlangpui chu hetiang hian a ni: “Khatih lai kha Mizo buai vanglai a ni a. Chakma ho te khan Mizo sipai te kha an ngai thei lovin an khua ah pawh awmhmun an khuartir phal ngai lova. Sawrkar tan Intelligence lakna tha tak an ni mai a. Chuvangin, Mizo hnam sipai te chet velna dal thei turin Bangladesh ramri hrul zai zai thui tak huamin Chakma Autonomous District Council Kha pek an nit a a ni” tiin an sawi deuh ber. Hei hi a dik ngei pawh a rinawm. Zofate tan hr District Council hi a ngeiawm em em na chhan pakhat chu a ni.

Amaherawh chu keimahni sawrkar ngei kum 33 kan neih tawh hnu pawh a he District Council paih tur a hmalakna mumal engmah kan la nei lo leh kan rorel khawl(Legislative Assembly) pawhin hemi hawi zawnga Resolution takngial pawh an la pass thei lo/ngam lo hi chu a zahthlak a, Zofate politic lam a hlawhchhamna lian tak niin ka hria. Mizote hi ram leh hnam humhalhna kawngah hian kan lo harhchhuak har deuh/mah mah niin a lang.

Post a Comment


  1. A ngaihthlak nawm in chhiar a manhla e.


He post chungchanga i ngaihdan lo sawi ve rawh: