ZOṬAWNG HUMHALH



— Centenary C. Lalzahawma

MARCH NI 31, 2020   

          Kan hnam ṭawng hi a bilha tho tawh lo ang maiin Zoṭawng lehkhabu tam zâwkah leh social media (Facebook, WhatsApp, Instagram, etc.,) lamah mi tam zâwk thuziah chhiar a har êm êm mai a! Ziah sual hi kan ngâi neih a, ziak sual na nã nã chu loh theih lovin kan chhiar sual leh nge nge ṭhîn. Kan hriat thiam chuan a tâwk tih ringawt hi a tâwk lo tih kan hre ṭheuh âwm e. Ziah(k) dik bawk a, lam dik bawk hi kan ram leh hnam humhalhna atâna thil pawimawh tak pakhat niin a lang. Zoṭawng humhalh hi hnam humhalhna a ni tih kan hriat thar a ṭul hle mai. Engpawh ni se, a tâwi thei ang berin Zoṭawng humhalh dân kawng chi hrang hrangte zînga pakhat, Zoṭawng ziak dân dika ziah a nih theih nân leh kan ni tin hman tlânglâwn ber berte hmangin sawi kan tum dâwn a ni.

          A hmasa berah chuan Chawngkhum dân tlâng huat loh ti chung zêlin Duhlian ṭawng lo pian chhuah dân hi a Chèpa kaiin lo sawi ila. Kan ram leh hnam ṭawng tuallêng ber lo pian chhuah dân la hre lote hriat atân rêng rêng pawhin a ṭha âwm e. Duhlian hming lo pian dân tîtî-a an sawi dân chuan : Lusei hi hnam chikawm leh duhâm (greedy) an ni a. Vawk an talh pawha ṭhenawm thlim duha khua a thim hnu, arsi lana talh ṭhin an nih avângin Lusei Vawk talh hun arsi lan tih kumkhua pawh a ni rêng a. Hnam fîr leh duhâm leh chanvo duh lian an nih avâng chuan Lusei ni loten an sawiin 'Duhlian-ho' an ti ṭhin a. Mahse, hnam tam ber leh chak, lalna chang an nih si avângin (khân) an ṭawngin tual a lêngin a lâr ber si a. Hnam dang lo ertu deuhte khân huatna rilru nên 'Duhlian ṭawng' an ti a, chuta ṭang chuan a pu hlen ta niin an sawi. Tichuan, hriat awlsam dânin 'Lusei ṭawng' chu 'Duhlian ṭawng' tihna a ni a, chutiang zêl chuan 'Duhlian ṭawng' chu 'Mizo ṭawng' tihna a ni. Tin, Duhlian chuan Lusei hnahthlâk (Zofate) zawng zawng hi a huam vek a ni.

TONE LANGUAGE

          Mizo ṭawng hi ṭawng thlûk nei a ni a, a thlûk azirin a awmzia pawh a danglam thei hle a, a ṭhen chu a thluk inang a kawh hrang te, a thlûk hrang a sipel inang si te a ni. Mi thiam tam takte zînga mi tlêm tê te thusawi lo târ lang ila.

          “Mizo Ṭawng hi ṭawng danglam tak, thlûk bik riau nei, thumal thuhmun pawh a thlûk avânga a kawh awmze hrang daih thei a ni a. A thlûk dân hriat hnuah a awmzia a chiang chauh  a ni. Chu avâng chuan hnam dang tân phei chuan Mizo ṭawng thiam tak nih  a harsa hle,” tiin James Dokhuma’n a sawi.

          Rev. Z.T. Sangkhuma pawn, “Mizo ṭawng hi, ṭawng thlûk nei (tonal Language) an tih zinga mi a ni a. Thu mal pakhat pawhin a thlûk dan azirin kawh chi hrang hrang a nei thei a; chu chuan ṭawng Bung Hrang (Parts of speech) pawh a awmtir ṭhin. Mizo ṭawngah chuan ṭawng thlûk ri hrang zawng zawng chu chi 6 lai a ni,” tiin a lehkhabu ziah Mizo ṭawng Grammar,  2009, p.2)-ah a târ lang.

          Mizo ṭawng Grammar bu leh Dictionary rintlâk tak siamtu Remkunga chuan, “A tlângpuiin kan lam rîk dân hi chi hrang hrang pali a ni thei a, chûng te chu- ri sâng phei te, falling intonation te, rising intonation te, ri hniam te hi a ni,” tiin a Mizo ṭawng Dictionary, 1992 kuma a chhuahah chuan a sawi ve thung.

          Sino-Tibetan linguist, Dr. Thangi chuan heti hian a ti a:  Consonants leh vowels bâkah hian “phoneme” chi khat a la awm leh a, chu chu linguist-ten “tone” an tih hi a ni. Chumi awmzia chu thu mal tin hian ama thlûk dân bîk a nei a. Mizo ṭawng-ah chuan “tone” chi li a awm a:

thlûk hniam (Low Tone)
thlûk sâng (High Tone)
thlûk chho (Rising Tone)
thlûk tlahniam (Falling tone)

          Tin, heng thlûkte hi a ri sei leh a ri tâwi chi an awm leh a {(vowels te hian lam dân sei (double/long vowel) leh lam dan tawi an nei ṭheuh va)}. Linguist-ten tone chhinchhiah dân chi hrang hrang an nei a. A ṭhen chuan number-in an chhinchhiah a. A tam zâwk erawh hi chuan vowel chunga thai “diacritics” an tih hi an hmang zâwk.”

          Darchuailova Renthlei thuziah aṭâng hian Mizo Ṭawng thlûk chungchânga ngaih dân (opinion) phir awm theihna chu kan hmu thei âwm e. Ani chuan, “Ziaktu ṭhenkhatin Mizo ṭawngah thlûk li aia tam awma an hriatna chhan hi kawng hnih awmin a lang a- a pakhatna chu homophones hi thlûk hranga an chhiar vâng a ni a; a pahnihna chu vowel tâwi leh sei hi a hranga an chhiar vâng a ni,” tiin. Engpawh ni se, a tha ber leh dik ber thliar hrang thiam tûra mahni inzir peih a ṭul fo ṭhîn. Mi an tam poh leh ngaih dân a tam si a!

CHHINCHHIAHNA (PUNCTUATION)

          Tun hma chuan punctuation ṭhenkhat - comma, semi-colon, colon leh fullstop te chhiar laia chawlh rei leh rei loh tûr chhinchhiah nan an hmang tel thin. Tunah erawh chuan a rei leh rei loh lam hi kan dah pawimawh ta vak lo; thuziak tihdikna hmanrua atân kan hmang ta ber zâwk. Punctuation chu chi hrang hrang a awm a; a mal malin lo sawi den den ila.

     1. Comma (,) : Comma hi thu sawi emaw, thu ziah emaw tifiah tura thumal hrang hrang tihhran ngai leh tlema thu hlawm hran deuh chin daidan tul daidan nana hman a ni. Sentence khat chauhvah pawh vawi tam tak hman a tul chang a awm thei a, hman tul miah lohna sentence pawh a awm thei. A hmanna tlangpui deuh chu hetiang hian:
           (1) Comma chu thu mal hrang hrang emaw, thil chi hrang hrang emaw tihhran nân an hmang. Entirna : Aizawl, Lunglei, Lawngtlai etc., ah chuan ka kal tawh.
            (2) Comma chu thu hlâwm hrang daidan nân heti ang hian an hmang: Entirna : A pui apang, a lian a te, a tar a zûrin kal vek tûr a ni.
            (3) Thu chu kohna a nih chuan comma dah zel tur a ni. Entirna : Liana, lo lêng rawh.
            (4) Mi thusawi sawi chhâwn lehna chi hnih (khungna leh khungna te) hman dâwn chiahah leh a tâwpah zawhna leh makna leh full stop chhinchhiahna a awm ṭumah chauh lo chuan comma dah zêl tûr a ni. Entirna : Isuan, "Lazar, lo chhuak rawh," a ti a.
            (5) Sentence bul ṭan nân emaw, clause bul ṭan nân emawa conjunction hman a nihin comma hman thin tûr. Entirna : Tin, Mahse, Nimahsela, etc.

     2. Semi-colon (;) : Comma leh tâwpna inkâr thâwk lâkna chhinchhiahna hi a ni.
            (1) Semi-colon hmanna tam ber chu kan thu sawi lai nêna inzawmna nei, a sawi tum inkalh deuh si, conjunction zinga- mahse, nimahsela, erawh chu, amaherawhchu, chute lo chuan, thung tihte hman hma chiaha clause emaw, sentence ni tawh tho emaw tâwpah hman a ni.
            (2) Semi-colon chu thu kal mêk nêna inkalh ni chuang lo mah sela, thu hlâwm kan ziah tâk chiah chu tichiang tûr emaw, tikim tur emawa thu hlawm dang sawi belh dâwnah hian dah tûr a ni.
            (3) Mi pahnih aia tam an hming leh an nihna emaw, an hming leh an awmna emaw sentence khatah indawta kan ziahin an hmingah comma a awm zêl a ṭul avângin an nihna emaw, an awmna emaw tâwpah chuan semi-colon dah zêl a ṭha.
            (4) Bible bung leh châng hran dah tlarin a inkârah semi-colon-a daidan zêl tûr a ni.

     3. Colon (:) : Thu sawi tur tak sawi hmaa a huap zau zâwk- a tlângpui emaw, a kalhmang emaw hmanga sawi hawnna tâwpah colon hi hman a ni thîn. A huap zau leh deuhvah phei chuan colon (:) leh dash (-) an hmang kawp thîn.

     4. Full stop (.) : Tâwpna chhinchhiahna hi a hmanna pui ber chu sentence tâwpah a ni. Tâwpna chhinchhiahna ang chiaha chhunhan (dot) a awm bawk a, chu chu serial number leh roll number ding lam chiahah te, lam tâwi hawrawp dawt chiahah te, decimal number hma chiahah te an dah thîn.

     5. Khungna (“ ”) leh khungna tê (‘ ’) : Khungna hi mi thusawi an ṭawngkam ang taka sawi chhâwn leh chânga an sawi chin chiah khungna chhinchhiahna a ni. Khungna tê hi mi thusawi sawi chhâwngtu sawi, sawi chhâwn leh a nihin a sawitu hmasa zâwk sawi chin zawng khung nâna hman a ni. (Chiang zâwkin a hnuai lamah)

     6. Zawhna (?) : Zawhna chhinchhiahna hmanna tûrah hian zawhna ṭawngkam atâna hman bîk a awm a, chûng chu sentence bul lamah emaw, a tâwp lamah emaw hman tel a ṭul thîn. Chûng ṭawngkamte chu – eng, engah nge, eng vângin nge, khawiah nge, tu, em, maw, nge tih ang chi hi a ni, tam tak a awm. Zawhna ṭawngkamte hi thu kâr lakah hman chang a awm thei a, chuti angah chuan dah a ṭul lo.

     7. Makna (!) : Hei hi makna chhinchhiahna a ni a, uarna chhinchhiahna a ni mah zâwk. Rilru khawih tak thil uar taka sawi chhuahna ṭawngkam tâwpa dah ṭhin a ni.

      8. Hyphen (-) : Thu pahnih zawmna leh daidanna a ni. Hyphen hi dash aiin a tawi a, a hmanna pawh dash nen hian a dang daih a ni.

            (1) Zawmna a nih dân: Tlar khata hla thu leng chin tâwpa thu mal chu zawm thin a niha, a ṭhen a len loh chuan a zawm a awm tih tilang turin leh thu inzawm chi ni si lo zawm anga dah ngai si zawm nan leh thlah pawlh sawinaahte zawmna atân hman a ni.

            (2) Daidanna a nih dân: Vowel-a tâwp thu mala ‘a’ leh ‘ah’ a beh (suffix) hian chu thu mal thar chuan awmze phir a neiha chhiara a chian mai theih loh chuan chhiar sual leh ngaih sual a nih loh nan suffix chu hyphen- a daidan thin tûr a ni. Figure leh Foreign word pawhin suffix a neih chuan a suffix nêna daidan nân hyphen hi hman thin tur a ni bawk.

Hyphen chu thu tlar tâwpa thu mal leng lo a tlar dawta zawm nâna a syllable kim china reh bun nân (syllabic division) hman a ni:

Kan vêng hi nakin lawkah chuan vêng lian leh pawi-
mawh tak a la ni dawn.

Hyphen hmanna dang leh chu thu mal pahnih emaw a aia tam emaw pawh thu mal pakhat anga cheibàwl nân (compound word siam nân) a ni. Hetiang compound word an tih ang chi hi chu Mizo ṭawngah hi chuan kan nei vak lo. Sâp ṭawng lamah hi chuan a tam khawp mai, entîrnân gun-shy, pale-faced, water-resistant, color-blind, three-legged  tih angte.  Mizo tawngah pawh hêng in-mû-leh-àr, khua-leh-tui, in-pâng-aw-zial, fak-sèlna, kût-chi-lo hawi tih angahte hi chuan a ṭangkai khawp mai. Mahse, Sâp ṭawngah pawh hian an hmang mumal vak chuang hlei lo va, hetiang compound word  han tih ang chi pawh hi a tam ber chu  thu mal hran ve ve angin an ziak ve mai mai bawk a (dining room, contact lens, etc), a ṭhente  erawh chu thu mal pakhat angin an ziah zawm lawi a (footlight, gunboat, etc).

Hetiang compound word pângngai—conventional compound—hman tlânglawn  chîho bâkah pawh hian a ṭul dân azirin thu mal pahnih aia tam daih hmang pawhin compound  hi thui deuh tak tak pawh a siam chawp theih a, chutiangah chuan hyphen hi hman a ngai thin:

         I len-lai-rual-lo-sawi-rem hla chu han sa chhin teh.

Hetiang hi nonce compound an ti. Sâp ṭawnga It’s a once-in-a-lifetime event han tiha once-in-a-life-time han tih ang te hi a ni. Hetiang hi standard compound a ni lo va, dictionary lama hmuh tûr chi pawh a ni lo a ni.

Zoṭawngah hi chuan hyphen hi hmanna bîk pawimawh deuh kan nei a, chu chu ṭawng danga suffix (-ah, -in, -na, -tu, -a,etc) emaw prefix emaw kan behtîr dâwnah a ni:
   
               Computer-in milem i ziak thiam em?
               London-ah kan zin dâwn.
Number/figure leh suffix zawm nân hyphen hi hman a ni bawk:

Kum 1978-ah,  dâr 3:30-ah,  2-na,  5-a puntîr, 12-in, etc.

     9. Dash (—) : Dash hi colon hmanna ang chi deuh thu note nei kamkeuna tâwpah an dah ṭhîn. Hyphen nen a inang lova, a hmanna pawh a inang hek lo; a sei zâwngah chuan hyphen lêt hnih vêla sei a ni.
            (1) Point hrang hrang nei thu tlângpui tâwpah colon nên hman thin a ni.
            (2) Thil chi hrang hrang sawi dâwnin a hlawma sawina thu leh an sawi tûr tak inkârah daidan nân an hmang ṭhîn. (Chiang zâwkin a hnuai lamah)

     10. Bracket tê ( ) : Hei hi a hmaa thu tifiah tûra ziah lan ngai si, chhiar tel kher erawh chu ngai lo thei kual khung nâna hman a ni. (Chiang zâwkin a hnuai lamah)

     11. Hawrawp banna ( ’ ) : Thu lam rîk hnih, a pahniha lam ri lova a hawrawp ṭhenkhat bana lam khata dah hian chûng hawrawp ban ṭhen aiah chuan he chhinchhiahna hi dah tûr a ni. Hawrawp banna hi chhiar sual phah leh ngaih sual theih tûr chi vên nân chauh hman tûr a ni.

      12. Tlukna (=) : Chhiarkawp lamah hman a ni ber a, thu ziah pangngaiah chuan hman ve zeuh châng chu a awm.

     13. Ditto ( ” ) : A chung chiaha mi ang tihna a ni a, hetiang hian an hmang ṭhîn.

     14. Nambar indawt chhâwn dân tûr (order of numbering) : Lehkhabu leh thu ziak dangah a thu ken azira thupui hrang hranga ṭhen sawm ṭul a awm ṭhîn a. Chuti angah chuan a ṭhen hranna kengtu atân nambar hman a ni ṭhîn. Thuziak thupui hrang hranga ṭhen sawm ngai chi-ah chuan a ṭhenna nambar chi hrang hrang hman a ṭul ṭhîn a. Heti ang atân hian hman dân kawngpui zui tlan neih a pawimawh hle.

     15. Oblique (/) : Office thuchhuak lehkha nambar nei chi-ah chuan a lehkha hriat hranna atâna a nambar ken figure daidan nân oblique (rin tung âwn) hman a ni ṭhîn. Tin, ni leh kum daidan nân hman ṭhin a ni bawk. Hetiang bakah hian thuziak pangngaiah pawh oblique (/) hi hman fo ṭhin a ni. Entirna : Chil chhâk phâk/chil perh phâk.

     16. Thlûk seina (^) : Hei hi thlûk sei chhinchhiahna a ni. Thu mal hawrawp zînga vowel awm chu lam rîk zâwnga thlûk a nih chuan chu vowel chungah chuan he chhinchhiahna hi dah tûr a ni. Vowel pahnih pawh awm kawp se, thlûk a nihna zâwk zâwk chungah dah tho tûr a ni. Mizo ṭawng hi a thlûkin kawngro a sut nasat avângin thlûk sei chhinchhiahna hmang tel lo chuan thuziak a chiang kim thei lo va, chhiar dik a harsa ṭhîn. Chuvângin, thuziak uluk chi-ah chuan vowel ri fan chungah thlûkna (^) dah ṭhin a ṭha.

     17. Figure, a thua ziah dân tûr : Nambar leh thil dang pawh a thua a zât kan ziahin heti ang hian ziah ṭhin tûr a ni. Unit tin zât chu a unit hming nên inzawma ziakin unit hrang hrang inkârah ‘leh’ dah ṭhin tûr a ni.

          Tûna kan sawi tur erawh hi chu punctuation marks  kan lo hriat ṭhanho leh kan hman zinho hêng  comma (coma ni lovin), semicolon, colon, period (full stop), interrogation point (?), exclamation point (!) tih angreng ni lo, Zoṭawnga thu ziak ṭhinten kan la hmêlhriat vak loh, pawimawh leh lăr êm êm si, Sâphoten an hman lâr leh an hman ṭangkai êm êmte an ni dâwn a ni.

     1. Parenthesis (  )

Thu ziak thin nazawng hian kan hre lêm lo maithei. Parenthesis chu thu sawi kal laia thu dang engemaw han zeh zawk nân emaw, kan thu sawi han sawi belh emaw, han sawifiah zui emaw, a tlukpui Sâp ṭawng ilova han dah nân emawa hman a ni ṭhîn.

Hetiangah hian parenthesis hi full stop-in a chhûngkhung tûr a ni, a chhan chu full stop hi sentence-in a ken a ni a, parenthesis hi chu sentence kal laia kan rawlh ve chauh kha a ni a.

Thil hrang hrang a indawta sawinaa number han pêk thliah thliah nân hian parenthesis hi hman a ni bawk ṭhîn:
       
Thil lei duh pathum lai ka la nei:  (1) kekawrtě, (2) suahdûr leh (3) iptepui.

Parenthesis aiah hian dash hi hman a ni châwk bawk. Sâpho thu ziak hian an uar hle. Dash hman dan hi Mizo ṭawnga thu ziak ṭhinten kan la hre vak lo va, zir chian a tha khawp mai.  Mi tam takin hyphen nen kan ngaih pawlh a, a danglamna pawh hre lěm lovin kan hman pawlh nawk nawk hlawm chu a nih hi. Dash hi chu hyphen aiin a sei zâwk. Sap ṭawnga thu ziah changkăng china an hman dân hi zir a ṭha hle.

Dash hi sentence  kal tluang pângngai chhûnga sentence hran (clause emaw phrase chauh emaw pawh a ni thei) han zeh luh zawk nân an hmang ṭhîn. Hetianga thu zeh hi a kengtu sentence kal lai nen a syntax thilin inzawmna nei lěm lo a nih ṭhin avângin comma tih vêla ṭhen hran a remchâng lo. Dash pahnihin chutiang thu zeh chu a karcheh ṭhîn. Dash pahnihte inkâra thu tel lo pawh hian a  sentence  kal pângngai kha chu a dik reng tho.
Thil hrang hrang a indawta sawi dâwnah hian dash hi a hman theih bawk, mahse dash dahna lai tûr hi fimkhur hlê a ngai:
    
          Anni zîngah hian mi chi hrang hrang an awm—sumdâwng, zirlai, lo nei mi.
          Mamawh kan ngah mai—chini, bawnghnutě, thingpui fê, aieng.

     2. Italics (Ziak âwn)

Italics (ziak âwn) hi chu Zoṭawng ziahnaah hian kan hmêlhriat tehmeuh va, mahse a hmanna tûr dik kan la hre chiang vak lo deuh hlawm.

Italics  hi  ṭawng dang (foreign word)-ah te, lehkhabu hmingah te, magazine, lem-chan thawnthu, film, painting leh poem/hla hmingahte hman a ni ṭhîn:

Thu uar duh lai bîkah te, thu sawi chian duh lai tak (citation term)-ah te, hla tlar han ziah chhuah nân te italics hi hman ṭhin a ni:

Mi lehkhabu ami thu lâk chhuah (quote)-naah te hian italics hi hman a ni bawk ṭhîn; amaherawhchu hei hi chu mahni duh dân (personal choice) azir te pawh a ni thei. Mi ṭhenkhat chuan italics hmang lovin hawrawp sîn deuh zâwk leh chi dang deuh te pawh an hmang a, a chhiar pawh a nuam duh daih zâwk. A tum ber chu kan thu ziak kal lai pângngai leh kan thu quote chhuah inla hrang deuh leh hriat hran awlsam  tûra han cheibawl kha a ni.

     3. Quotation marks (“...”/ ‘...’)
        
Mi dang thu sawi sawi chhâwn nân hman a ni. Mi thu sawi kan sawi chhâwn chin zawng kha quotation mark hian khung tûr a ni. Quotation marks hi chi hnih—double leh single—a awm a, duh zâwk zâwk hman theih a ni:

        Liani chuan, “Kan rawn kal ve lo mai ang,” a ti a.
        Liani chuan, ‘Kan rawn kal ve lo mai ang,’ a ti a.
Quotation marks  hi lehkhabu a hranpaa chhuah ang chi leh magazine  te ni lo essay leh article thupuiah te, thawnthu tâwi hmingah te, lehkhabu bung (chapter) hmingah te hman ṭhin a ni:    

        Pu Mawia thu ziah “Tawn Thar Di” tih kha chu a ngaihnawm takzet a ni.
Quotation marks  hi  ṭawng dang (foreign word) pawh ni chuang lo, kan ṭawng tho, ṭawngkam ze dang deuh, ṭawng lêrh (slang) kan han tih chi angah te, thu mal leh ṭawngkam han sawi lan deuh bîk duh emaw, mi dang ṭawngkam han hawh lawk angahte hian hman a ni bawk:

           Vawiin kan ṭhianpa chu a va rawn inha ‘hmin’ ve!
          Kan hruaitu tharho chu an ‘bawn’ ṭiah ṭiah hle mai.

     4. Ellipsis ( . . . / . . . .)

Hei hi mi thu sawi lâk chhâwna khawiilai thu emaw bàn (chhawk ṭhen) nâna hman, dot pathum emaw pali emaw hi a ni. Zoṭawnga thuziahnaah hian kan la hmang uar lo khawp mai a, chuvângin a awmzia leh a nihphung hre lo pawh kan tamin a rinawm.  Ellipsis hi chi hnih a awm: dot pathum leh dot pali.
Sentence chhûnga (a lai laklawha) thu thenkhat kan bàn chuan dot pathum ( . . . ) hman tur a ni a, dot hmasa ber leh a hma chiah thu inkârah  space dah tur a ni a, a dot pathumte inkârah leh dot hnuhnung ber leh a dawt chiaha thu inkârah dah leh bawk tûr a ni. Hetia ellipsis hmanga thu ṭhenkhat kan bàn hian a sentence kha kim tawh lo mah se kan thu lâk chhuah sawitu thu sawi tum ber (substance) kha chu tihbo chuan loh tûr a ni a, a sawi tum hriat theih tâwkin a thu hi a inla mar dik tho tûr a ni:

SEDAL President pawhin, “Tûn kan dinhmuna min chawi thlengtu . . . Serchhip khua hian chawimawi a phû kan ti a ni,” a tih kha.

Sentence tâwp lam  thu emaw a sentence dawt thu bul lam emaw kan ban a nih chuan dot pali ( . . . . ) hman tûr a ni a, dot  palite inkârah pawh hian space dah tûr a ni:

Pu Lalhmingmawia Raltein, “Souvenir buatsaih hi thil awlai lo tak mai a ni a . . . .” a lo tih hi a dik hle a ni.

Hetianga sentence tâwp lama ellipsis hi quote mark-in a chhûng-khung tûr a ni.

Pu V L Reman a mumang a sawia “Chu film-ah bawk chuan Serchhipa kut themthiamna  neiho hian ṭan an lo la nasa hle a. . . . Serchhip chu commercial center pawimawh tak a lo nih phah a,” a tih khân ngaihtuahna a tithui khawp mai.

Inbiakna ṭawngkama thil hriat chian ngam chiah loh emaw sawi tlang dawt hreh deuh emaw, zuzi deuh leh zuih ral deuhva thu sawinaah emaw,  thu sawi hman loh tihlan nân emaw hman a ni bawk. Kan thu sawi/ziah tur a lo chhiartu turin a suangtuah zui atâna kan duh lai tihlan nân a hman theih bawk:
I hriat reng ka duh chu . . . .
Ka sawi anga i tih loh chuan . . . . a ni mai.

     5. Hawrawp pui Hmanna (Capitalization)

Hawrawp pui hmanna hi sawi tur a tam hle mai a, sawi vek sên a ni lo va, chuvângin sawi chipchiar vak lovin a hmanna pawimawh zual deuh chauh sawi kan tum dâwn a ni.

Sentence bulah, mihring hming bulah, ram, khua, lui, tlâng, khua leh hmun hming bulah, lehkhabu, article leh essay  thupui leh hla hming bulah, pawl hming bulah, zirna in leh office bîk hming bulah, pawl hming bulah, chawlhkâr leh thla (month) hming bulah, department  hming bulah, sakhua, kohhran, political party  hming bulah, mi mal title hming bulah (President Bush, Professor Rualtinchhînga, Judge Khualhrâwka, etc.), rêl, lawng, thlawhna hming bulah, midang thu sawi sawi chhâwn (quotation) bul ṭannaah—a tam mai; kan sawi sêng lo vang.

Mi mal nihna hi an hming hma lama dah (title ang chi) a nih chuan hawrawp puia ṭan tûr a ni a, mahse chutiang ni lova sawi ve satliahna (general sense)-ah chuan hawrawp těa ziah mai tûr:

       Pu Mawia chu  judge  a ni lâwm ni?
       Ani te chu professor a nihna a la rei hlei nem.

Thu lam tawi (abbreviation)-ah hian hawrawp pui hman tur a ni a, a lam pumah pawh hawrawp pui hman tur a ni:
Entirnan :
     (1) YMA, MHIP, MZP, MSU, etc., angah te hian. (Tun thleng hian hawrawp têa ziak an la awm cheu)
     (2) Keini chuan DRDA hi kan chhawr khawp mai.
     (3) Serchhip Teacher Association hmingin  chibai ka bûk ache.

Sikul subject leh course hming ilo hi hawrawp puia ṭan kher a ngai lo (philosophy, anthropology, physics, psychology, etc.). Mahse subject  chu language subject a nih erawh chuan hawrawp puia ṭan tûr (English, Hindi, French, etc).

   6. Bracket (hetiang hi : [ ] )

Hei hi Zoṭawnga  thuziak ṭhinten kan la hmêlhriat vak lo niin a lang. A hmanna hre lêm lo kan la tam awm e.  Mi thu sawi kan lâk chhuahin kan thu lâk chhuah nêna inzawmna nei lo, englai thu emaw kan sawi fiahna—editorial comment ang chi—khung nân hman a ni ṭhîn. Hetianga kan thu khung hi kan thu lâk chhuah sawitu/ziaktu ṭawngkam ni lo, a ziak chhâwngtu ṭawngkam a ni:
“He kan lehkha bûk [a ṭawngkam chher chhuah] hi a la phuisui deuh deuh dâwn,” a tih kha.
“Amah [Pathian] nên inremin i awm ang u,” a ti a.
Thu sawi lai sawi fiah lehzual nâna parenthesis kan hman chhûngah parenthesis dang kan khung lehchhâwn duh chuan bracket hi hman tûr a ni:
Hetiangah hian bracket chu an hmang ṭhîn (hetia khung chhâwn [bracket han hman leh] kher loh pawh hian thu a ziah theih tho na a).

     7. Apostrophe (hawrawp banna [ ’]
    
Hei hi Mizo ṭawngah pawh hian kan hmang ṭangkai khawp mai. Sâp ṭawngah chuan thuziah tâwi nân (contraction) an hmang ber (don’t, isn’t, can’t, ’tis, etc.). Zoṭawngah hi chuan hêngte hi kan hmanna tlângpui an ni âwm e:
    
               Ka’n ti te’ng (Ka han tih teh ang)
               Khawimaw i’n en chiang ang hmiang (. . . .i han . . . .)
               Kan pu’n a’n hau tak tak mai a! (Kan puin a han . . . .)
               Tu’n nge sawi rêng rêng a? (Tuin nge . . . . )
               Ka nu’n sualin mi pai a (Ka nuin . . . . ).

Sentence hnuhnung berah te khian apostrophe dah lo ila chuan chhiar sual a awl viau dâwn a, Lal David-a thu sawi ropui hi kan man miah lo thei dâwn a ni.

Hetiangah hian mi tam berin apostrophe hman loh kan chîng a, a ṭha hauh lo; hman hrâm hrâm tûr a ni. Sentence hmasa ber te khi apostrophe hmang lovin han ziak ila chuan ‘Kan ti teng’ a ni mai a, ‘Engtia tihna chu ni maw?’ tih mai a awl viau vang. Mi ṭhenkhat chuan hetianga a ṭul hun apianga apostrophe hman hi hnawk riauvin an hre leh pek a, mahse punctuation mark rêng rêng hi a ṭul hun apianga hman tûr a ni. Thuziah chhiar dik theihna tûra tih a ni a, mita ena mawi leh hahdam zawn ngawt lam a ni lo.

Amaherawhchu lo vang  tih nâna lo’ng tih leh lo vem ni tih nâna lo’m ni  tihte hi chu contraction an nihna aṭânga thlir chuan ziah dân tûr ni âwm taka lang a ni nâ a kan lam chhuah dân nên a inpersan tlat a (‘lawung’/‘lawum’ tia lam a ngai dâwn si a!), lawng/lawm ni tia ziah mai chi niin a lang. A rîk dân hi a pawimawhzia chu, Ka duh lo a tih te hi a thu mal dinhmun theuh thlir chuan ziah dân dik a ni ngei a, mahse kan sawi rîk chiah chuan ‘v’ kan lam ri tel tlat a, chuvângin Ka duh lo va tia ziah hi a dik tlat a ni. Hemi thuah hi chuan kan Bible leh kan mi hmasate thu ziah dân kha a tha khawp mai. ‘Ni loin’ ti lovin ‘Ni lovin’ tih zâwk tûr a ni.

     8. Abbreviation

Thu lam tâwi (abbreviation) hi hawrawp puia ziah tur a ni.  Hawrawp inkâr zêlah hian dot an dah ṭhîn a, mahse tun laiah chuan dot dah loh hi an chîng tawh zâwk. Abbreviation zawng zawng hawrawp puia ziah vek kher tur erawh chu a ni chuang lo; hawrawp têa ziah chi hrim hrim a awm ve: pc (per cent), cm (centimeter), dpi (dot per inch), mph (miles per hour), am (ante meridiem), sq (square), etc. Hetiang abbreviation hawrawptê (lower case abbreviation)-ah phei hi chuan dot hi an dah ngai lo hrim hrim a ni.

Abbreviation thenkhat, a bul chauh hawrawp pui ang chi—title ang chite—pawh a awm a, chutiangah chuan a hawrawp hnuhnung lâk tel a nih chuan dot  hi dah a ngai lo:

Dr Chuhkûnga, Mr Hrangsaipuia, Mt Sinai, St Andrew, etc.
    
Amaherawhchu a abbreviation khân a hawrawp hnuhnung ber (final letter) a keng tel lo a nih erawh chuan dot hi dah a ṭha:

Tv. Zakima, Nl. Tialpâri, Rev. Satinlûta, Pc. Chhuihkûnga, etc.

Hming bula hnam hming abbreviation-a dah hi a tam lo hle a. Kan dah a nih pawhin hnam hming te hi chu thu mal pakhat a nih tlângpui avângin a bulah chauh lo chuan hawrawp pui dah loh tûr a ni:

Pc. Satinrêka (‘PC Satinrêka’  ti lovin [‘Pc.’ tih hi ‘Pachuau’ tihna a ni]).

     9. Slash (thai âwn [/])

Hei hi ‘emaw’ (or) tih nân hman a ni.

Mi ṭhenkhat hian abbreviation-ah slash  hman mai an chîng a, hei hi a fel lo hle a ni:
      Kan vêngah chuan V/C hriatpuina lovin in kan rêl ngawt ngai lo.
     
‘V/C’ tia kan ziah chuan ‘Village or Council’ tihna a ni daih dâwn a, awmzia a nei lo vang! Abbreviation dang zawng zawngah pawh slash kan hmang ngai lo va, Village Council tih lam tâwi a nih avânga slash hman bîk ngawtna chhan tûr hi a awm lo a ni. ‘VC’ kan tih loh leh ‘V.C’ kan ti ve mai tûr a ni dâwn lawm ni?. ‘BDO’ tih te hi tunge ‘B/D/O’ tia ziak ngai?

Hla  tlar khat aia tam kan ziah khâwmin a hla tlar hran hran daidan nân slash hi hman theih a ni:

Ka hla châng duh deuh mai chu Thil ṭha tiin sualna do la/Nunna kawng dik zawh la/Tin chatuan lawmna i nei ang/Hun danglam tawh lohnaah chuan  tih hi a ni.

     10. Diacritics

Hei hi kan hre lâr lo hle maithei. Hawrawp chungah emaw a hnuaiah emaw a lam rîk dân tûr chhinchhiah nâna dah ṭhin hi a ni. Mizo ṭawngah chuan vowel chunga thlûkna chi hrang hrang kan dah leh ‘t’ hnuaia chhut te hi an ni.

Mizo tawnga vowel pathum, ‘a, e,i, u’ hi thlûkna chi hrang hrang nei theite   an ni a, mahse tunah hi chuan thlûk sei kan tih mai ( ˆ ) hi kan hman tlânglâwn chu a ni deuh mai a.  Hei pawh hi tam takin a hmanna dik kan hre mang lo. A hriate lah hian kan han hmang duh lo (peih lo?) râwl nên! Hetiang hian thlûkna hi hmang tlâng thei ila chu thu chhiar a nuam deuh tur:
Khâng te chu ât lai thil alâwm.
Pawisa kan hmang fai răt tawh.
I chhàn i chhàn tur pawh ka ni lo.
Mi rèl lah hi a chîng lutuk a.
I thlai chìn chu a ṭiak tawh em?

Thu mal ang chi:

Entirnân : Dâr, thlè, dàwntuai, na nã nã, kìmtlâng, hángṭam, rêl, zâr, tûr, páwng, râlkhèl, inkhèl, râlkâi, etc.

Mizo ṭawnga kan diacritical mark pawimawh zet mai, kan ṭawng tichiang riautu awm chu ‘t’ hi a ni. Kut ziakah chuan a chhun zung zung theih a, typescript-ah hian a tih hleih theih loh va (tum luih chuan a theih tho), mahse  word processor (computer)-ah hi chuan vanneihthlâk takin kan mi thiamte zârah ‘t’ te kan chhu thei a, a  lâwmawm tak zet a ni.

          Engpawh ni se,  ziah zawm leh ziah zawm loh tûr te hi hriat a, hawrawp pui hmanna tûr leh hawrawp tê hmanna tûr te pawh kan chîk lehzual a pawimawh hle. Kan ziah dik loh chhan tlângpuia lang chu kan thiam loh vâng ni lovin kan uluk peih loh vâng a ni zâwk. Kan ziah tâk te sawisêl ngai lai a awm ang tih ka ring. Englai pawhin a dik lo lai leh felhlel deuh lai a awm a nih chuan siam ṭhat theih reng a ni e.

LEHKHABU RÂWNTE

1. Dokhuma, James.,Ṭawng Un Hrilhfiahna, 1987
2. Maka, Franz.,Thu Ziah Dân
3. Lalruatdika, Mr KC.,Mizo Ṭawng Ziah Dân (Punctuation)
4. Lalzuithanga, F.,Zoṭawng kalhmang,Laisuih (Essays and Criticism), 2018

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