India Danpui sawi nghin a ni ta mai em ni?

(Zoram mamawh – mi fing, mi ril leh mi thuk)

- K Remruatfela
Edtor, ‘Dan Hriatna’ Legal Journal

India ram hi khawvela Democracy sawrkar lian ber leh ram Danpui (Constitution) nei sei ber nia sawi thin a. Chumi chhunga cheng thei leh khawsa theia Pathianin Zofate min lo siam hi vannei pawh kan inti hle thin a nih kha! Kan hriat theuh angin India ram hi Hindu bitna ram leh Muslim lalram thin a ni a. Amaherawhchu, hetihlaia kan vanneihna em em chu Khawvelah hian Bible behchhana Danpui (Constitution) duang ram 5 an awm a, chung zingah chuan kan ram sawrkar, India ram pawh tel ve-in, kan ram Danpui hi Bible behchhana (Principles of Natural Justice) duan leh remkhawm vek a ni a. Hetianga Hindu bitna hmuna zalen taka keini Kristiate leh hnam tlem zawkte kan awm theihna chhan hi eng dang ni lovin kan hruaitu hmasa Mahatma Gandhi, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, Jawahar Lal Nehru, Vallabhai Patel, Rajendra Prasad etc te thawhrah liau liau a ni kan ti lo thei lo! .



A Innghahna Lungphum (Preamble):

‘Preamble’ tih chu a tawi zawngin ‘Thuhmahrui’ tihna a ni ber a. A awmzia ber chu kan ram Danpui zawng zawngte innghahna leh a bulthut ti ila kan sawi sual awm lo ve. Kan ram Danpui lo duangtu hmasate kha an lo thlir thui em em a. India ram hi hnam chi hrang hrang inzawmkhawm ten an siam a ni tih an hriat tlat avangin ‘Unity in diversity’ thuthlung kha an kengkawh tlat thin a, an lo fakawm khawp mai.

A tira kan sawi zuai tawh ang khan kan ram Danpui hi Bible behchhana duan leh remkhawm a ni a. A innghahna thu laimu ber chu khuarel dikna, Principles of Natural Justice a ni. Tin, chumi penga a inngahna leh a bulthut chi hrang hrangte chuan Dan thuhmahruai ‘PREAMBLE’ ah tawi kimchang taka tarlan vek a ni a. He Preamble hi kan ram Danpui ziarang engkim lan vekna a nih avangin Sawrkarin a ngai pawimawh em em a. ‘Basic structure of the Indian constitution’ ang hiala ngaih a ni.

Kan ram Danpuiin a ngaihpawimawh hmasak ber chu India ram hi ‘Sovereign, Socialist , Secular and Democratic Republic’ a siam a ni a. A awmzia ni bera lang chu mipuite sawrkar, sakhaw tih bik awm lova sakhaw hrang hrang biate lungrual taka an len za a, ram inrelbawlna leh ram hruaitu thanchhuah kawngah mipuiten thuneihna sang ber an neihna leh mipuiten an aiawhna roreltu an thlanchhuah theihna tihna a ni. A dawt lehah chuan ‘Social, Economic & Political Justice’ tih a ni a. A awmzia ber chu mitin intluktlanna, a hausa leh rethei berte thleng pawha roreltu thlanchhuahna leh ram inrorelna kawnga dikna thuhmun neihna a ni. Hei hian mitinte chu dinhmun inang vekah awmin, Communism inrelbawlna anga sum leh pai neih inang vek an nei tur tihna lam a kawk lo va, an phutawk leh an phak tawk ang theuhah Dan hmaah zalenna an nei vek tur a ni tihna a ni ber. A pathumnaah chuan ‘Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship’ tih a ni leh a. A awmzia chu khua leh tui tupawhin an veizawng leh an duhzawng sawichuah theihna leh zalen taka an sakhaw biak duhzawng biak leh tawmpui theihna a ni.

A palinaah chuan ‘equality of status and opprtunities to every citizen’ tih a ni leh a. Dan rorelna hmaah chuan Prime Minister leh dinhmun chhe bera ding pawh inenhranna a awm lo ang tihna a ni ber. A panganaah chuan ‘Fraternity to all the Citizen’ tih a ni a. India ram chuan khua leh tui tinte inunauna leh inhmangaihtawnna a ngai pawimawh hle a, mi zawng zawngten chhungkhat kan ni tih an hriat a, hmangaihna leh lungrualna nena an insuihzawm a, ram leh hnam tana lungrual taka ke an pen za theihna tura inpumkhatna rilru tuhngheh hi ram Danpui inghahna lai chu a ni e tih hi a kawh tum ber chu niin a lang.

Chutiang chu kan ram Danpui ziarang innghahna a nih avang chuan India ram insiksawi lai dinhmun kha han thlir letin keini Zofate tan pawhin India citizen nih kha thil chakawm tak a ni ngei ang. A ni taka, BJP leh a sangawizawnpuiten Indian politics ah hnuhma an lo neih hma, Nehru-Gandhi family kaihhruai Indian National Congress ten India ram min kaihhruai lai kha chuan India danpui hnuaiah hian keini Zofate leh minority te hi kan hlimin/himin kan thla a muang hliah hliah a. Hamthatna chi tinreng kan chang kha a ni ber mai. Tun hnaiah Nehru-Gandhi family te kaihhruai Indian National Congress thuneihna a lo zuai a, BJP leh a sangawizawnpui ten thuneihna leh lalna an la chan a, India Danpui innghahna sawinghing a lo nih chhoh tak zelah hian mi tam tak chuan kan hruaitu hmasa, Ch.Saprawnga leh a ho, Mizo Union Party te kha India rama min hruailuttu tiin kan dem lek lek tan niin a lang a. Kan ngaihtuah chian tawk lo vang pawh a ni mahna le!

*India Union chhunga kan luh dan*

Khatia British in kan ram an rawn lak khan Schedule District Act (XIV of 1874) thu angin British India hnuaia khungluh kan nihna pawh kum 1895 vel khan puan fel vek a ni a. Kum 1897 thleng khan Lunglei lam chu Bengal Province lamah Aizawl bial Assam Province lamah min dah darh a. Kum 1898 April ni khat khan Assam Province lamah min khungkhawm ta a ni. Indian Penal Code (IPC) hi British India a hman atan kum 1860 ah siam a ni a (Act No. XLV of 1860). Scheduled District Act 1874 (14 of 1874) a Section 5 thuneihna hmangin, IPC pawh chu kum 1898 ah Lushai Hills (Mizoram) an huamtir ta nghe nghe a. Kum 1912-a Bengal, Bihar, Orissa leh Assam ramri an siam khan Assam Province ah min beh nghehtir ta a ni. (Act 1912, Part 4 Schedule C).

Amaherawhchu, hnam mawl mai kan la nih avangin hnamfing tawh zawkte laka min humhim nan Govt. of Inda Act.1919(52)(a)(2) in a sawi angin Governor General chuan Backward Tract order 59-ah kum 1921 June ni 3 atang khan keini chauh pawh ni lo heng Mikir Hills, North Cachar Hills (Halflong bial), Naga Hills, Sadya Frontier Tract, Balipara Frontier Tract leh Lakhipur Frontier Tract te nen hnam hnufual “Backward Tract” ah min puang. 

*Excluded Area ah Min Dah*

Queen Elizabeth II thupek angin kum 1600 khan East India Company te chuan India ramah sumdawnna an lo tan a. Kum 1858 atang phei chuan Company rorelna titawpin England lal chuan a theuneihna hmangin India a rawn awp ta hial a. Chumi a awp atang chuan India mipuiten anmahni awptu Kumpinu Sawrkar lakah lungawi ni reng reng an nei ta lo va. Zalen boruak hip phalova hnuaichhiah an nih fo avang chuan zalen nih duhna leh Sap huatna boruak a sosang chak ta hle a. Kumpinu sawrkar pawhin ngaihthah mai mai chi-a a hriat tak loh avangin inkaihruaina dang hrang hrang a siam tawhte ennawnin a siamtha hret hret a. Ram bung (Province) tin ten mahni thuneihna tâwkfang (Provincial autonomy) nei turin a rel ta a. Chu Danpui chu Government of India Act, 1935 tih a ni. 

Chutichuan, Province tin te chuan Legislative Assembly (dan siamna) mipui thlan leh Ministry an nei ta a. Assam ah pawh chuan chutiang Legislative Asembly chu neih a ni a. Nimahsela, bial hnufual zual thenkhat, mipui Sawrkarna la phâk ve lo a an ngaihte an awm a. Chungte chu “Excluded Area” an vuah a.  Chung zingah chuan Mizote pawh kan tel ve  a ni. Indian Act of 1935 (92) (1) chuan, “Excluded leh partially Excluded bialte chu Province Executive thuneihnain a huam a. Amaherawhchu Central leh Province dan siamte chu Governor in hman tur a ti te a nih loh chuan hman a ni lo ang” a ti.

*Excluded Area Tih Awmzia*

Excluded” awmzia chu “huam tel ve loh”, “daidan hnan” tihna a ni.  Mi tam tak chuan Govt. of India Act 1935-in Excluded Area’ a hrilhfiahna hi hrethiam lovin, Mizote British India laka ata min Exclude (Daidan) na ni-ah an ngai thin a. Chutiang hawi zawnga ziak lehkhabu pawh hmuh tur a awm leh zeuh thin. Excluded Area a awm kan nih vang khan British India ah awp kan ni ve lo va, Foreign Department hmanga England Lal in min awp zawk a ni an ti thin a. Chung chuan a ni lo lamah kan rilru a hruai peng mai ang tih pawh a hlauhawm khawp mai. 

Excluded Area a dah kan nih chhan ber chu khatih hunlai khan Mizote hi hnam la changkang lo tak leh mawl tak kan la nih avangin Assam tlangmi, pianphunga puitling tawh zawkte nena Dan rorelna khata awm tlak hrih lova min ngaih vang leh kan la phak lo deuha min awptu Kumpinu Sawrkar khan min rin vang a ni a. Assam Assembly-ah pawh aiawh kan tir ve ngai lova. (a chutih avang chuan heti lamah hian kan beng pawh a ngawng deuh maithei e). Assam Governor chuan a hranpa ngatin min awp a, Governor aiawhin Superintendent-in Dictator-in min awp ta a. Assam MLA ho Dan siamte chu hnam lo changkang tawh zawkte mila siam anih thin avangin, chungte laka min humhim nan chuan Superintendent (Bawrhsap) in Mizorama hman ve a rem tih chinte chauh loh chu kan hmang ve ngai lo a ni. Excluded Area a dah ni mah ila, British-India hnuaia awm kan nihna a khawihbuai pha chuang lo.  British-India chhunga mite chauh hman tura an duan ‘Indian Penal Code, 1860’ pawh Mizoram chhunga hman ve a nih tlatna hian a nemnghet chiang hle awm e. ‘Excluded Area’ awmzia diktak chu  India Act 1935 veka Sec. 311hian a hrilhfiah chiang viau a. A fiah zawk nan a saptawng ang ang hian ka rawn dahlang ang e:

_The provisions of the Government of India Act, 1935 (Sec.91 & 92) are based on the principle that legislation which is passed by the Provincial Legislature is often likely to be unsuitable for application to the Hill Districts. The mechanism provided for "filtering" the legislation is therefore to empower the Governor of the Province to apply or not to apply such legislation. The main features of the provisions are that certain areas have been scheduled as excluded or partially excluded; it is possible for areas to be transferred from the category of excluded to the category of partially excluded by an Order-in-Council and, similarly, from the category of partially excluded to the category of non-excluded; legislation will not apply automatically to any such scheduled area even if it is a partially excluded area, but will have to be notified by the Governor who, if he applies them at all, can make alterations. The revenues for excluded areas are charged to the revenues of the Province and special regulations, which do not apply to the rest of the Province, may be made by the Governor in his discretion for excluded and partially excluded areas._

Heta tang hian Excluded Area tih awmzia diktak leh British India hnuaia Excluded Area te pawh kan lo tel ve zia min hriatchhuahtir theih a rinawm a. Assam Legislative in min awp lo mah se, Assam Governor in min awp tho avang khan Mizoram hi British India ah kan tel tih a tichiang em em a ni. Khang hunlai, Mizoram insingsak fel hunlaia Mizo Union Party Secretary hna chelhlai Pu H.Vanthuama pawhin heti hian a Lehkhabu-ah a lo sawi ve bawk a:

Kum 1935 khan British Parliamnent chuan British Indiaa India Province tinte ro inrel dan tur “Provincial Autonomy Act” chu a pass a. Amaherawhchu Mizoramte chu Provincial Legislature zawm lovin Excluded area ah dah a ni. He order hi Lushai Hills District Pu A.G.Mc Call, Mizoram Bawrhsap lehkhabu chhuah phek 2-naah pawh chhuah a ni. He lehkhabu hi chhuah atan Secretary to the Governor of Assam lehkha No.4720 G.S. of 7.11.1938 in a rawn pawmpui ta a. Heta tang hian Mizoram chu British awp lai chuan British India hnuaia Assam Province chhunga awm ngei a ni tih chu phat rual a ni lo. 

Mizoram chu Assam District 12-te zinga District pakhatah min dah a, Lushai Hills District tih kan ni a. Min enkawlna zawng zawng pawh Assam sawrkar sum vek niin, kan Bawrhsap-te pawh Indian Civil Service (ICS) pachal te an ni a. A hnuaia sapte hote pawh Assam sawrkar hnuaia thawklai, Zorama rawn transfer chhoh te an ni zela. Sipai Sawrkar hnuaiah tho hian enkawl dan hrang bikin min enkawl mai a ni. British India hnuaia Assam Sawrkar enkawl vek kan ni reng a. Chuvangin British India hun chhung pawh khan India ramah dah kan ni vek tih a chiang khawp mai.Tin, Assam Sawrkar hnuaia MPSC Chairman pawh lo ni tawh Pu R. Thanhlira (Ex- MP) chuan heti hian a lo ziak tawh bawk a:

British sawrkarin India a awp lai chuan Official te, tangka te pawh India sawrkar tangka lo chu a awm ngai lova. Chuvangin India a indan (independent) thleng khan, Mizoram a sawrkar hnathawk zawng zawng, Mizo leh hnam dangte pawh, India sawrkar mi rawih vek an ni. Tin, kum sawm dan zela mihring chhiarpui (census) India Sawrkarin a siam thu ah pawh, Mizoram mipui te chu chhiar tel an ni ve ziahin, India ram mipui tam lam ziahna ah pawh telh zel thin a ni bawk. 

India Independence Act 1947 (2) (1) na chuan Pakistan ram tura hlehthlak chin tih chauh lo chu, India ram British awpchhung ami tawh phawt chu India ramin a hual vek a ni tih a sawi a. Chumi a nih vangin India Union chhunga min hruailuttu chu Mizo Union hruaitu ni lovin Kumpinu Sawrkar te  a ni tih a chiang em em a ni. Mizote India Union chhunga kan lo awm hi kan duh lova, kan lungawilo a nih pawhin kan dem zawk tur ber chu Mizo Union hruaitu hluite ni lovin Sap ho hi an lo ni zawk tih pawh kan hrefiah thei theuh tawh awm e. 

Mi tam takin ngaihtuah chiang lovin Sap ho awpna hnuaiah khan la awm zawk ila chuan Zofate hi kan changkang tawh ngawt ang chu kan ti leh mai thin a. Hei pawh hi thil ngaihtuah chian tawk loh vang mai mai niin a lang. Sap ho hi kan hre theuh ang a, hnam fing leh changkang hmasa an nih avangin an intilalin an induh thiam em em a. An chutih em avanga an awhbeh ram zawng zawngte pawn zalenna duha, thih ngam lupua Kumpinu Sawrlar laka lungawilohna lantir thin kha an ni reng a. Chutih laia Sap ho hnuaia intulut zawnga tan lo laka, an hnuaia la awm han chak tlat mai chu thil atthlak tak pawh niin a lang.

*Duhthlang Thei Kan Lo Ni Hrim Hrim Em?*

A chunga kan lo hmuh tak anga Dan tlawhchhana Zofate India Union chhunga kan lo luhdan chiang taka hmuh tur a awm chung si hian, mi tam tak chuan kan chik peih leh lo thin a. Kan mita kan hmuh tama kan benga kan hriat tam thilte hian kan rilru min lo kaihruai thui viau ni awm a ni, India Independent tantirh ata tawh tun thlenga Independent chungchanga thu inchuh fo chu, Mizote hian Burma emaw, pakistan emaw, India zawm emaw, British Crown Colony-a awm emaw, Independent a awm emaw kan duh duh thlang thei ni anga sawi hi a awm ve reng a. Hemi thu tanchhantute sawi dan chuan, kum 1946-a Constituent Assembly Advisory Sub-Committee for North Eastern India, Aizawl-a lo kal khan Kulikawn-a public meeting-ah heta lo kal zinga mi Sir B.N.Rao-a khan Mizote hian in duh duh in thlang thei a, amaherawhchu India Union-a luh hi in tan a tha ber ang a ti a ni an ti a. Sawi dan dang lehah chuan Sir B.N. Rao-a khan chutiang takin a sawi awzawng lo an ti thung bawk.

He advisory sub-committee ah hian Mizorama Political party awmchhun Mizo Union Party aiawhin khatihlaia Mizo Union Head-quarter, Aizawl President Pu Khawtinkhuma leh Sub Head-quarter, Lunglei President Pu Ch.Saprawnga te kha co-opted member niin an tel ve a. Mizorama an lo kala, Circuit House-a an thukhawm tum a, Rev.Zairema`n duhthlan theih a ni nge nih loh tih Sir B.N. Rao a zawhna a chhan dan chu Pu Ch.Saprawnga`n tihian a Lehkhabu-aha tarlang a. 

Kumpinu Sawrkar tirh Cabinet Mission ri ruat danin British India zawng zawng chu India Union-a lut vek tura tih a ni a. Zoram pawh British india chhunga tel in nih avangin khungtel in ni a.Tichuan an chhuah hnua (British ho) sawrkar awmdan turah in ngaihdan kan hre duh a ni e”. a ti a, tiin a ziak. Pi Lalziki pawhin hemi thu bawk hi zawtin, “Chu, India Union kan zawm duh nge duh lo tih in hre duh a ni maw?” a han ti leh a. Sir B.N. Rao bawk chuan, “Ni lo, chutiang chu keini thuken pawnlam a ni. India Union chhunga in dinhmun tur engtin nge ni ang tih rawn sawipui tur che u in kan lo kal a ni. 

Inhnialna a awm fo avangin Dt. 14 August, 1947-a Aizawla mi pawimawh zual 50 lai Bawrhsap Peter`an a kokhawm tumah pawh hemi thu hi sawi a ni a. Assam Governor hnenah zuk zawhfiah nise an ti a, an zuk zawt ta a. Chuta Governor rawn chhanna  Aizawl Bawrhsap Office atanga a tihchhuah chu hetiang hi a ni. 

_(i). There can be no question of the Lushais leaving the Indian Union as in law, the Lushai country being an Excluded area was already part of Assam._

_(ii). That the Lushai must remain with the Indian with the Indian Union and cannot joint either Pakistan or Burma._

_(iii). That in view of the Constitutional position stated above, the question of opting out after 10 (ten) years does not arise._

He Governor chhanna copy hi saptawnga ziah a nih vang leh mi tlemte hnena a copy sem a nih vang hian tumah pawhin an ngaihven zui em em hran lo niin a lang a. Tin, khatih lai khan politics-ah mipuite an la mawlmang em em a. Tun hnuah sawiseltu an awm anga, inhnialna a rawn piang dawn tih an lo hre lawk lovin intlawhkhalhna chang an hre lo pawh a ni thei. Tun hnaiah thil a nihna diktak hrechiang hmasa lova Ziaktu tam tak ten, India Independent hmain Zofate hi Indian mi kan ni ngai lo tiin thiam takin Union tanhmun an rawn phetthlu char char mai si-a. Lehlamah, Mizo Union hruaitu hluite an lo thi zo tawh bawk nen, thangtharte thudik haichhuaka ke pen ngam tur hi Zofate hian a mamawhin a au tak meuh meuh a ni.

*Sixth Schedule – A awmzia leh a Nihna*

Kum 1947-a India ramin Kumpinu awpbehna hnuai ata zalenna a lo hmuh a, India Danpui thar duan a lo nih khan Government of India Act, 1935 hnuaia ‘Excluded Area’ leh ‘Partially Excluded Area’-a awm North East Tribal te chu Assam Province hnuaiah self-autonomy (mahnia ro inrel hran theihna) pek vek tho an ni a. India Danpui-a Art. 242 (2) in a sawi angin heng North East Tribal te inrelbawlna dan hi India Danpuia, VI Schedule an tihah hian tarlan a ni.

VI Schedule hnuaia Tribal area te hi a tirah chuan ‘Backward Tract’ ti-a hriat lar an ni a. Kumpinu Sawrkarin Burmese a tukdawl a, kum 1826-a Yandaboo hmuna Inremna a siampui atang khan heng Tribal area te hi a hmuchhuak a. He Yandaboo inremna hi Kumpinu Sawrkarin North East Tribal te min awpkhawmna atana mellung pawimawh ber pakhat a ni. Chuta tang chuan chawplehchilha Assam Province la nghalin, Bengal Province chhungah min senglut ta a.  

Amaherawhchu, February, 1874 khan Bengal Lt. General in a awpna ata la chhuakin Chief Commissioner hona hnuaiah Assam Province rorelna hran siam thar a ni a. Hemi kum vek, April thla hian Scheduled District Act 1874 duan a ni bawk a. Assam Province pumpui chu ‘Scheduled District’ ah puan nghal a ni. 

Kum 1880 khan Assam Frontier Tracts Regulation, 1880 siam a ni a. Chumi Act in a phalsak angin Scheduled District huamchhung pumpuiah chuan Chief Commissioner in tha a tih angin ro a rel thin a.  Kum 1898-a Sir Montague leh Sir Chelmsford tangdunin report an siam, Montague-Chelmsford report an tih maiah chuan heng Scheduled District-a awm te dinhmun hi ngunthluk lehzuala ngaihtuah tan a ni a. 

 Montague-Chemlsford Report in a rawtna tihhlawhtlinna turin India Act of 1919-a Sec 52 (A) chuan Governor-General chu British-India huamchhunga a duh lai laia ‘Backwrad Tract’-a puang turin thuneihna a pe a. Governor General chuan thuneihna a neih angin January ni 3, 1921 khan Assam Province pumpui chu ‘Backward Tract’ ah puan a ni. 

 Hengte hi ‘Backward Tract’ atana puante chu an ni:

(a) The Garo Hills District
(b) The British portions of Khasi & Jaintia Hills District other than the Shillong Municipality and Cantonment
(c) The Mikir Hills (in Nowgong and Sibsagar Districts)
(d) The North Cachar Hills (in Cachar Districts)
(e) The Naga Hills District
(f) The Lushai Hills District
(g) The Sadiya Frontier Tract.
(h) The Balipara Frontier Tract
(i) The Lakhimpur Frontier Tract

Government of India Act, 1935 duan a nih khan heng ‘Backward Tract’ a puante hi ‘Excluded Area’ leh ‘Partially Excluded Area’ ti-a hming thlak an ni a. Assam Governor chuan a hranpa ngatin min awp a, Governor aiawhin Superintendent-in Dictator-in min awp ta a. Assam MLA ho Dan siamte chu hnam lo changkang tawh zawkte mila siam anih thin avangin, chungte laka min humhim nan chuan Superintendent (Bawrhsap) in Mizorama hman ve a rem tih chinte chauh loh chu kan hmang ve ngai lo a ni. 

India a lo independent khan heng Tribal te hi a bik taka venhimna la pek chhunzawm zel an ni a. An inrelbawlna dan tur zawng zawng hi India Danpuia Schedule parukna (Sixth Schedule) ah khung vek a ni.

Sixth Schedule hi thenkhat chuan Danpui te (Mini Constitution) ti pawhin an sawi thin a. North East tribal zawng zawngte rorelna bung hrang a chipchiara tarlanna hmun a nih vang pawh a ni awm e. He Sixth Scheduled hnuaia Tribal area te chu ‘Autonomous District Council’ hran pek vek an ni a. Heng Autonomoous sawrkar hian an hnam dan leh anmahni pual bil inrelbawlnaah thuneihna nasa tak an nei a. Parliament leh Legislative Assembly ten an dan siam rem rem President leh Governor te chuan tha an tih ang leh an duh angin Autonomous District Council chhung bika hman turin an siamrem emaw an hnawl emaw thei a . Tin, subject thenkhatah phei chuan Assam Legislative Assembly in a dan siam reng reng chu District Council huamchhunga hmang turin District Council Sawrkarte remtihna lak hmasak ngaihna tam tak a awm a ni.

Chuvangin, Sixth Schedule hi North East tribal ten kan identity emaw kan culture emaw an sakhua emaw humhim tura India Danpuiin mak tak maia min duhsakna a ni a tih loh theihloh.

*Art. 371G - A Awmzia leh a Nihna*

Art. 371G hi Indian Constitution (53rd. Amendment) Act, 1986 hnuaia State of Mizoram Act, 1986 behchhana siam a ni a. Hetiang hi a ni:- 

(a) no Act of President in respect of
(i) religious or social practices of the Mizos,
 (ii) Mizo customary law and procedure,
(iii) administration of civil and criminal justice involving decisions according to Mizo customary    law,
(iv) ownership and transfer of land, shall apply to the State of Mizoram unless the Legislative Assembly of the State of Mizoram by a resolution so decides: Provided that nothing in this clause shall apply to any Central Act in force in the union territory of Mizoram immediately before the commencement of the Constitution (Fifty third Amendment) Act, 1986 
(b) the Legislative Assembly of the State of Mizoram shall consist of not less than forty members

India Danpui hnuaia kan chanvo ‘Art. 371G’ hian Mizote hi kan nationalism ni lovin kan identity humhim turin zalenna thuk tak min pe a. He chang awmzia chu – ‘ Kan Sakhua emaw kan hnam ze thil emaw khawih thilah chuan Sawrkar laipuiin Mizo Legislative Assembly te remtihna lo chuan engmah a lo inrawlh thiang lova, chung thilah chuan Central Act reng reng chu Legislative Assembly in resolution an pass te a nih loh chuan Mizoram chhungah hman theih a ni lovang’ tihna a ni deuh ber. 

He chang hian Sakhua leh hnamzia humhimna kawnga Zofate zalenna thuk tak min pek mai piahlamah State Legislative Assembly thu lo chuan Mizoram chhungah Wealth Tax hman a ni ve lovang tih a chuang bawk a.  Tin, Indian Limitation Act, 1963 pawh Mizoram chhungah a hman ve theih bawk a ni.  

Amaherawhchu, he kan special provision neih hi ngunthluk taka han zirchian chuan duhthu a sam tawk lo em em a. State of Mizoram Act, 1986 hnuia hamthatna kan neihte hi India danpui VII Schedule hnuaia awm tho, Central Sawrkar leh State Sawrkarin an inhman tawm theih dan a ni a. Chutihlaia, Mizoten hamthatna bik kan neih rawh chu Concurrent list ah reng reng chuan Central leh State Sawrkarah thuneihna inchuh a awm a nih chuan Central Sawrkar thu chu dingchang zawk tur anga ngaih a ni a. Hetah tak hian Art.371G ah tanchhan tur dang kan la neih avangin hei hian kan buk a ti rit lo thei lo va. Kan tan chuan inhumhimna kulh bing sang tha tak a ni kan ti thei tho ang.

Thil pawi em em mai chu he Special Provision kan neihah hian MNF leh India Sawrkarin inremna ‘Memmorandum of Settlement” an neiha an inremna thu pawimawh tak takte hmaih an nih hi a ni. Tin, khatih lai, India Sawrkar leh MNF inbiakna a kal lai vel khan (leh a hma pawhin), MNF te khan Mizoram dinhmun tur chu anmahni MNF bak midangte lo sawi ve an remti lova.  Khatihaia Political party te pawh khan lo sawi ve kha an ngam loh phah niin a lang a. A pawi em em a ni.

Chung bakah chuan, MNF ten India Sawrkar an zuk dawr chhung zawng khan MNF hruaitute hian anmahni thurawn pe thintute atan, dan hre mi (Constitution & Legal experts) an nei tha lo kha a pawi ta deuh a ni. Entirna pakhat han sawi ila: Kan ram leilung Mizo fate tan humhim zelna kawngah inremna thuthlung Para 4.3 (ii) (d) ah chuan heti hian a inziak a ni:

Notwithstanding in the Constitution, no Act of Parliament in respect of – (d) ownership and transfer of land, shall apply to the State of Mizoram unless the Legislative Assembly of the State of Mizoram by a resolution so decides: Provided that nothing in this clause shall apply to any Central Act in force in the union territory of Mizoram immediately before the commencement of the Constitution (Fifty third Amendment) Act, 1986.

 Nagaland chungchangah chuan kum 1962-a Art. 371A an siamsaknaah, khimi a chunga ‘Provided that…’ tih khi a tel ve lo a ni.

India Parliament dan siam, The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980, Section 2 ah chuan, Central sawrkar phalna la hmasa lovin, forest ram reng reng forest ni lo zawnga chantir chu khap tlat a ni. Mizoram Forest Department lah chuan Supreme Court-a Affidavit an thehluhah chuan, Mizoram chhungah recorded forest chu kan ram area pum pui hmun li-a thena hmun thum zet a ni, an lo ti zui ta bawk si. Supreme Court order leh Forest (Conservation) Act hian Mizo mipuite harsatna nasa tak min siam tan mek a ni. 

 He Act ah hian Inner Line Regulation chungchang te, Mizoramin kan duh chuan keimahni puala High Court kan neih theih tur thute hi engmah a lo chuang lova. A pawi a ni tih ngawt lo chu sawi tur dang a awm lo.

Hetiang hmaih leh telh loh a awm zeuh zeuh chhan chu a hunlai hian Central Sawrkar finchhuah leh finkhalh thei tura mi thiam leh mi hawizau, Zofaten kan la neih tawk loh vang a nih a rinawm a. Tun ang khawvelah chuan ni se hei aia dinhmun tha zawk pawh kan chan ngei a rinawm a. Amaherawhchu, hun kal tawh chu hun kal tawh ni se, tun atana pawimawh ber chu he kan Special Provision neih chhun hi a zau thei ang ber leh a tangkai thei ang bera hmang thei tura kan pawhfan thiam hi a ni a. A chhawr tangkai leh tangkai loh thu-ah chuan Mizo mipuite hian kan kutah liau liau a innghat tawh e. 

*India Danpui lo chhuahna hmahruai – Hindu Nationalist te rilru tinatu chu!*

India ram hi a history kan zir chian chuan Hindu lalram, Hindu kulhpui anga sawi thin a ni a. Nimahsela, kum zabi 12-na atang khan Shabab-ud-din Ghori hovin Muslim ho hian India ramah bu an lo khuar tan a. Mi chak leh thil tithei zawkte an ni si a. Chuvangin, kar lovah Hindu lalte chu tudaiin Muslim sakhaw betute chuan lalna an lo chang tan a. Sap ho lo lan hma phei kha chu Muslim lalte hian a ram neitu Hindu sakhaw betute kha an awpbet a, an lakah an vawklallen a ni ber mai!
Nimahsela, kum 1600 khan Kumpinu Lalnu Queen Elizabeth-i chuan a ram awp tihzau zel nan leh Kumpinu lalram tihchangtlun nan East India Company hnenah India rama sumdawn theihna a pe chhuak a. Chuta tang chuan India ramah lo inbunnghet zelin kum 1757 khan Battle of Plassey indona ropui takah Robert Clive chuan Mughal (Muslim) rorelna paihthlain ram leh sawrkar inrelbawlnaah thu leh hla an lo nei tan a. Kum 1773 phei chuan British sawrkarin India ram chhunga rorelna  a lekkawh dan tur leh a awhbeh dan tur ‘The regulating Act of 1773’ chu Parliament ah a puangchhuak ta hial a. Chumia chinah chuan ram rorelnnaah insawhnghet deuh deuhin India ram chu British sawrkar hnuaiah a intalut nghet ta deuh deuh a ni.

Kum 1858 phei chuan Indian Legal system-a hun danglam tak inherchhuakin kum 250 zel Company rorelna in a awpna chu thlakin Kumpinu lal leh a thuihhhruai ten direct in India ram inrelbawlna chu a kaihruai ta a. Chuta tang chuan British ram Danpui tlem tlem te India ram inrelbawlnaah la lutin thubuai rem leh leh chinfel dan kawngah te pawh British ram Danpui ang zulzuia hman zel a lo ni a. Amaherawhcu, Kumpinu sawkarin ram mipuite a enkawl danah lungawilohna nasa tak a awm avangin India ram inrelbawlna Danpui hrang hrang siamthat zel niin a mi chengte mipui dinhmun thlir chung leh an Society dinhmun nena inrem deuh tura sawirem hret hret a ni a. Chung zinga lar deuh deuhte chu ‘The Government of India Act, 1909; The Government of India Act, 1919 leh The Government of India Act, 1935 te hi an ni. Hemi Act pathum hi a pawimawh bikna chhan em em chu hemi Danpui siam thar atanga India mi leh sa dik takten ram inrelbawlnaah thu leh hla an neih ve tanna a nih vang a ni. The Government of Indian Act 1935 phei hi chuan kan ram Danpui inrelbalwna thar, The Government of Indian Act 1947 thulakna ber pakhat leh tuna kan ram Danpui hmanlai innghahna ber pakhat a ni a. Kan ram Danpui ziarang lanchhuahna bul ber tih pawhin kan sawi thei ang.

Kumpinu Sawrkar in India ram an lo awp tirh phat atanga Hindu Nationalist te rilru tinatu ber pakhat chu ‘Divide & Rule’ policy an lo kalpui kha a ni. Kumpinu Sawrkar khan verther takin ram mipuite inkarah inhmuhthiam lohna chi a kui tiak a. Muslim sakhawbetu lam tangin siamin Hindu sakhawbetute erawh an awpbet chhunzawm a. A ram neitu diktak Hindu mipuite chu an bet tlawk tlawk a. Hei tak hi Hindu nationalist te rilru ti na tu chu a ni. He policy tho hian Kumpinu Sawrkar te khan kan ram (Lushai Hills) ah pawh an lo hmang ta chat a. Kan lalte thuneihna laksak anga lang si khan an thlawp ru tlat a, hnamchawm mipuite erawh thuk takin an awpbet a, hnawmchawm mipuite apwbeha kum 60 chuang zet kan awm hnuah kum 1954 {vide The Assam Lushai Hills, District (Aquisiton of Chiefs` Right) Act, 1954} khan hnamchawm mipuite tan zalenna kawl a eng ve tan ta chiah a nih kha! 

*BJP leh a sangawizawnpui te thiltum*

Chutiang chu thil awmzia a nih avang chuan BJP leh a sangawizawnpuite chuan India ram hi Hindu lalrama hruai kir leh an tum takzet a. Tun hma, Muslim leh Sap hote lo lan hmaa Hindu lal ram ang kha  din thar leh hi an tum bulpui ber a ni. Chumi atana an mu tan ber chu kan ram Danpui ‘Indian Constitution’ hi a ni.

Kan hriat theuh angin kan ram Danpui duangtu Dr. BR Ambedkar leh a hote khan India Danpui an duan khan khawvela ram hrang hrang Constitution tha lai laite an la chhuak a, kan ram milin an herrem hlawm a ni a. A innghahna bulthumah pawh ‘Bible’ ngat hmang an ni. Chuvangin, kan ram Danpui hi han zirchiang tak tak ila, kristiante leh hnam tlem zawkte hamthatna chi tinrengin a khat ti ila kan sawi sual lutuk awm lo ve. The Citizenship Act, 1955 te hi han zirchiang ila, India union chhungah hian minority te inthlahpunna lam kawng a kaw em em a. Chutihlai chuan ram pawna Hindu sakhaw betute tan erawh India khua leh tui nihna kawng a ping em em a. He Citizen Act hi siamthata, expand a nih ngawt loh chuan India rama Hindu population percentage hi a hniam tial tial dawn tih hi a chiang em em a. Chutiang chu thil awmzia a nih vangin BJP leh a sangawizawnpuite hian CAB tia kan hriat lar em em ‘Citizenship Ammendment Bill’ pawh hi pu lut an ni.

Tin, Uniform Civil Code (UCC) tia kan hriatlar hi han belchiang ve ila. Part III of the Indian Constitution, Fundamental Right hi han zirchiang ila, India rama sakhaw hrang hrang bia leh hnam hrang hrangte hian kan hnamzia mila khawsaka, kan identity humhim theihna right thahnem tak kan nei a. ‘Unity in spirit only, federal in structure’ hmangtute kan nih avangin keini minority te hian Hindu lalramah hian independent country ni ang tho ah zalen takin kan lo khawsa thei thin kha a ni a. Amaherawhchu, heti renga kan inhriatthiam chhoh chuan minority te hi an pung tual tual ang a, an zalen tual tual ang a, keini Hindu sakhaw betute hi kan ral tial tial mai ang tih hlauhthawnnain khua leh tui zawng awngte hnena Civil Code indang (One culture) thuthlung hi rawn sawi thar an ni a. Part IV of the Indian Constitution (Directive Principles of State Policy) huamchhunga awm ni mah se, provison amendment neiha, compulsory uniform civil code neih hi BJP leh a sangawizawnpuite hian an tum ruh hle a. An tana tha, kan tana tha hauh lo, an dinchhuahna, kan chhiatna bul tur ni si a ni ber mai.

*Engtin nge tan kan lo khawh tak ang le?*

Kan ram Danpuiin min humhimna humhim lehzel tura kawng pawimawh hmaa ber chu kan inhumhimna dan thiah tumtute che thei lo tura Vote hmanga hrek leh dan beh hi a ni. Nimahsela, Majority Hindu ten BJP leh a sangawizawnpuite che thei tura an vawrhchhuah tawh mai piah lamah keini minority te pawhin BJP sangawizawnpuite vote hmanga kan thlawpna kan lan tir a,  BJP sangawizawnpui MP hial kan thlanchhuah tak si avangin a nihna takah chuan kawng hi a ping takzet tawh a, kan hriat loh luatah kan lu chungah meiling kan chhekkhawl hi a ni ber mai!

Nimahsela, tih theih kan nei tawh lo tia zam chhiaa, kut kuangkuah tur kan ni reng reng lova. Kan theihna tam lo mah se, ‘by hook or by crook’ tia kan theihna zawn theuhah theihtawp chhuaha ram leh hnam tan tan kan khawih a ngai ta takmeuh meuh a ni. Kan Pathian Lehkhathu-in ‘Tun hi hun lawmawm a ni a, tun hi chhandamna ni chu a ni’ a lo tih ang deuhin Zofate tun dinhmuna kan hun tawn hi hun pawimawh lai ber leh inralrin ngaihna hun lai ber a ni. He kan Zoram hian beihna a tawk chho mek a. Hnamdang sumdawng hausa ten, kan panna lai ber, kan retheihna denchhenin sum leh pain min run chho mek bawk a. Bangaldesh raltlan thenkhat ten min run chhen bawk nen. Tin, kan hriat reng tur chu kan thenawm vaite hian kan rama sumdawnna lo bun hi an chak zek zekin, Bengal East Frontier Act 1873 in hnam hnufual kan nihna anga min hungbikna “Inner Line Regulation” hi hnawk an tiin, hlip thuai thuai tawh se an ti tak meuh meuh a. Chutiang tur pawhin a ruk takin hma an la a. Chumai bakah “Act East Policy” vangin kan ram chu sawinghingin a la awm dawn bawk a. 

Hetiang karah hian kan ram hian humhimtu leh chhantu tur thlalai mi thiamte hi a au tak meuh meuh a ni. Chanchinbu leh media chi hrang hrang hmangtein kan ram mamawh ni-a kan rin te kan tarlang thin a. Amaherawhchu, heng an sawi zawng zawng hi kan mamawhlo e tihna ni chuang lovin heng zawng zawng aia mamawh ngawih ngawih kan ram hian a nei a. Chu chu thalai lehkhazir sang satliah ringawt ni lo, kan ram aiawha ding theitu tur mi fing, mi ril leh mi thuk, sap hovin philosopher an tih ang tak tak mite hi an ni. Tin, chu lo lehah pawh ram leh hnam hmangaih tak tak mi, mahni channa tur ni mah se, ka ram leh hnamin a thatpui phawt chuan ti ila ram leh hnam tana inpe ral thak ngam mi, he khawvel ropuina thlahlel thin mite laka a ngam mite kan ram hian a mamawh hle bawk. 

Greek Philosopher ropui Plato`an, “Rorelna lu ber kengkawhtu chu mi fing/mi ril/mi thuk an ni tur a ni a. Chutiang bawkin mi fing/mi ril/mi thuk te chauhin ram an kaihruai tur a ni” a lo tih thin angin he kan ram Zoram pawh hian ram hruaitu atan mi thiam tak tak leh mi hmantlak tak tak, mi bik hi a mamawh tawh takzetin a hriat a. Chutiang mite kan zawn chhuaha kan thlan chhuah thiam pawh a tul hle a ni. Greek mite chuan Plato, Socrates leh Aristotle te an nei a. Tin, hnam ropui English te pawhin John Locke, Thomas Hobbes te an neiin, French hnamte pawhin Voltaire, Jean Jacques Rousseau an nei a. 

Tin, hnam huaisen German hnamte pawhin Imanuel Kant an nei bawk. Kan Zoram hian heng ka rawn tarchhuah mi hrangte khum zo tur leh el phak tur mi fing, mi ril leh mi thukte hi kan nei ve ang em? Khawvel ram retheia sawi kumkhua India ram pawh, mi thiam Economist Dr. Manmohan Singh an neih avangin khawvel ram thiltithei berte zingah a in khaichhuak tawh a. Chutiang bawk chuan Chinese Premier ropui Hu Jintao remhriatna avang liau liauin China sawrkar pawh hi khawvel sawrkar chak berte zinga mi leh ram hmasawn chak berte zing ami an ni tawh bawk. Kan Zoram hian heng ka rawn tarchhuah mi hrangte khum zo tur leh el phak tur mi fing, mi ril leh mi thukte hi kan nei ve reng em le???

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